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    Does anyone have notes on the cognitive and biological causes of schizophrenia. I would be really grateful for any notes on this

    P.S. An evaluation of each explanation would be very helpful as well.
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    have a look, on google books, at john read's 'models of madness'. its quite biased against the biological model but worth a read.
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    what do you actually need to know? Ive got some notes on it but i cant type out all of them!!
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    cognitive causes? don't think we've done them, but have done biological causes. main one is the dopamine hypothesis, there are also others such as genetic malfunction, and different brain structures.
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    search psych exchange into google and it should bring up an a level website....its really good help it has notes, evaluations ..everything
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    I'm not sure what level of difficulty and detail you're looking for but this is what I know:

    -Cognitive Explanations:

    Schizophrenia is characterised by profound thought disturbance- this could be due to 'cognitive deficits' which impairs thought processes such as perception and memory, forming cognitive biases which affect the way people see and interpret the world. As the person attempts to make sense of these other features arise. When the person is confronted by voices for example, they turn to others. Other people naturally deny the existence of these phenomena but the person hearing the voices are so convinced they are real that they begin to think that friends and family are hiding the truth from them. (paranoia). They reject any form of feedback and develop beliefs that they are being manipulated (Garety 1991).
    Frith's Model: (A cognitive explanation)
    This states that actions caused by external forces and internal intentions cannot be distinguished between by someone with schizophrenia. This distinguishes the concious and preconcious processing. Concious processing is where the highest level of cognitive functioning occurs which we can only deal with one at a time. The preconcious processing occurs without our awareness and are automatic, taking place simultaneously. If the filter between the two types of processing breaks down, inconsequential information may pass into the concious awareness. This unimportant information is interpreted wrongly and is regarded significant by the schizophrenic and they believe it must be acted upon. (Delusions)
    Auditory hallucinations are explained by the model as non-verbal sounds being interpreted as verbal sounds. The model works on the premise that the neuronal pathways between the hippocampus to the prefrontal cortex are linked to faulty dopamine regulation.

    Evaluation of the Cognitive approach:
    Support:
    -Cognitive biases are useful and can gain insights into the behaviour of schizophrenics. For example, sexual abuse can lead to a cognitive bias which sees the world as dangerous and threatening.
    -It is found that the larynx of patients with schizophrenia was often active during time they claimed to be experiencing auditory hallucinations. This suggests that they mistook their own inner speech for that of someone else, supporting the theory (McGuigan 1966).
    -Schizophrenics have been found to have reduced activity in the parts of the brain monitoring inner speech.
    Criticisms:
    -The cognitive approach doesn't explain the causes of the cognitive deficits or where they come from in the first place. They turn to the biological approach to explain these deficits.
    -It focuses mainly on one particular symptoms, delusions to the exclusion of others.
    -Cause and effect cannot be established as it isn't clear whether the cognitive dysfunction is a cause or effect of the disorder. Prospective and longitudinal research and high risk studies are necessary to establish the direction of the effect.
    -The supporting research is experimental and therefore lacks mudane realism. It may lack generalisability to the schizophrenic symptoms as a result.

    If you want biological explanations please ask because I can't be bothered to say it all right now as its really long. :p:
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    Why dont you use the notes you made in class?
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    I need to get an explanation of it and it needs to include : metarepresentation, outside agency, central monitoring system, initiated contact, Social withdrawal, distorted belief, hallucinations.

    All these phrases have to link up to explaining the cognitive causes of schizophrenia
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    (Original post by Da_hopeful_1)
    I need to get an explanation of it and it needs to include : metarepresentation, outside agency, central monitoring system, initiated contact, Social withdrawal, distorted belief, hallucinations.

    All these phrases have to link up to explaining the cognitive causes of schizophrenia
    I strongly recommend you read Richard Bentalls "Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature" for excellent cognitive explanations of schizophrenia which include most, if not all, of those factors.
 
 
 
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