OCR A2 Psychology - G544 help neededWatch
I would be delighted if someone could help me sort out my revision materials for G544 a little bit. We need to know 2 studies for each approach/perspective/issue/method/debate. What two studies will you use as examples for the following:
Determinism vs free will
Reductionism vs holism
Nature vs nurture
Psychology as a science
Individual vs situational explanations
The usefulness of psychological research
Thanks in advance
Ethics - Milgram, Watson and Raynor, Raine (if misused), Piliavin, Maguire
Determinism v free will - Sperry, Zimbardo, Asch (both), Gottesman and shields
Nature v nurture - Freud (nature altho' bit nurture, Watson and Raynore (nurture), Dement and kleitman (nature)
Gave you a choice as I'm aware not all colleges learn the same studies. Good luck!
and my teacher has said that longitunidal and snapshot studies may come up but what is a cross sectional study and what is an example of one?
hope this is ok!
Fisher et al (cognitive interview) is high in ecological validity as it was a field experiment and based on actual interviews...
Wood (role of tutoring in problem solving) can be low in ecological validity because in an actual lesson, the teacher cannot monitor each pupil individually, which you need to do if this scaffolding thing is to work in the real classroom setting.
not sure if you've done these studies but i hope it helped anyways =)
Longitudinal: Farrington, Kohlberg and Kanner
Snapshot: Watson and Raynor, Raine
Nature: Brunner, Ohman, Raine, Dement and Klietman
Nurture: Farrington, Weatherburn, Sunderland, Watson and Raynor
Determinism: Asch, Nemeth
Free will: Ireland, Wheatley - these could be argued either way
Situational: Reicher and Haslam, Haney and Zimbardom, Milgram
Science; Brunner, Geer and Maisel,
Not Science: Hastie, Sunderland
Useful: Loftus, Johansonn
Not Useful: Daly and Wilson, Waxler and Morrison - no cause or effect
Validity: Johansonn, Brunner
In valid: Geer and Maisel, Bruce
Ecologically Valid: Fisher, Mann
Ecologically Invalid: Bruce, Dement and Klietman, Loftus and Palmer
Reliability: Kohlberg, Hastie
Unreliable: Frued and Thigpen and Cleckley
Unethical: Piliavin, Milgram, Watson and Raynor
Ethnocentric: Weatherburn, Watt, Waxler and Morrison, Milgram
Cross Cultural: Kohlberg,
Then you just need strengths and weaknesses! Hope that helps!
Nature vs nurture could be: farrington and raine