swiftylol
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I've struggled for a bit on this question but I cant figure it out, some help (with an explanation) would be appreciated

Q) Some babies are born with a hole in the septum. How might this afect the composition of blood entering the systemic circulation?

(4 marks)

Its talking about the septum of the heart, just to clarify
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batman_
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(Original post by swiftylol)
I've struggled for a bit on this question but I cant figure it out, some help (with an explanation) would be appreciated

Q) Some babies are born with a hole in the septum. How might this afect the composition of blood entering the systemic circulation?

(4 marks)

Its talking about the septum of the heart, just to clarify
Well, you would not have proper separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (I presume). So you would get mixed blood oxygenation levels going to the pulm. and systemic circulation.
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Beska
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Ignoring the fact that a hole in the septum would mess with ventricular pressure, it would cause oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix. It would mean that oxygenated blood may get sent to the lungs to be re-reoxygenated (useless) and then deoxygenated blood would be sent to the body (useless). Basically discuss that, perhaps with some detail on the importance of oxygen.
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swiftylol
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(Original post by Beska)
Ignoring the fact that a hole in the septum would mess with ventricular pressure, it would cause oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix. It would mean that oxygenated blood may get sent to the lungs to be re-reoxygenated (useless) and then deoxygenated blood would be sent to the body (useless). Basically discuss that, perhaps with some detail on the importance of oxygen.

This may make me sound thick, but I dont understand how it actually causes them to mix, I understand all the other stuff but I just dont see how a hole (could be in any part) would cause the types of oxygen to mix.
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Beska
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(Original post by swiftylol)
This may make me sound thick, but I dont understand how it actually causes them to mix, I understand all the other stuff but I just dont see how a hole (could be in any part) would cause the types of oxygen to mix.
No worries, I'll try and help. First off, I'm not talking about 2 different types of oxygen but 2 different 'states' of blood.

The human body has a so-called double circulatory system. In the first circuit, the deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart (right ventricle) to the lungs to become oxygenated. In the second circuit, the now oxygenated blood is pumped by the heart (left ventricle) to the body, so the body can use the oxygen. Once the oxygen is used up, it is then deoxygenated and the cycle repeats. When there is a mixing of the 2 difference states - such as a hole in the septum - it makes the system inefficient. This is because the heart is trying to oxygenate already oxygenated blood and is pumping deoxygenated blood to the body. The mixing of the 2 different "systems" is the problem here.
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swiftylol
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(Original post by Beska)
No worries, I'll try and help. First off, I'm not talking about 2 different types of oxygen but 2 different 'states' of blood.

The human body has a so-called double circulatory system. In the first circuit, the deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart (right ventricle) to the lungs to become oxygenated. In the second circuit, the now oxygenated blood is pumped by the heart (left ventricle) to the body, so the body can use the oxygen. Once the oxygen is used up, it is then deoxygenated and the cycle repeats. When there is a mixing of the 2 difference states - such as a hole in the septum - it makes the system inefficient. This is because the heart is trying to oxygenate already oxygenated blood and is pumping deoxygenated blood to the body. The mixing of the 2 different "systems" is the problem here.

Sorry, that was a typo (two types of oxygen)

I understand everything about the circulation etc but I think I just didnt fully understand the role of the septum itself, but ive realised that its sort of like a barrier between the two states of blood, like around where the atrium and ventricles are located.

Thanks for clearing it up
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l4ith
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I think it is important to mention that blood will enter from the left side to the right side of the heart as the pressure in the LHS is greater, when a hole is present. i.e. blood goes from LV --> RV.
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Beska
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(Original post by swiftylol)
Sorry, that was a typo (two types of oxygen)

I understand everything about the circulation etc but I think I just didnt fully understand the role of the septum itself, but ive realised that its sort of like a barrier between the two states of blood, like around where the atrium and ventricles are located.

Thanks for clearing it up
Yup, that's right. The heart is split up into two halves (those 2 halves then split into atria/ventricles). The 'wall' between the two halves (technically, the two ventricles) is the septum.
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Afoma
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The septum separates the left and right ventricles. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood and the right for pumping deoxygenated blood. If there is a hole in the septum, blood flows from the left side to the right side because of the higher pressure in the right side.. Hence both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood would mix and not enough oxygen would be supplied to the body as the composition has been reduced.
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