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    Hey!

    I am doing my Advanced Higher Investigation and it is on Preparation of Paracetamol. I have to explain the chemistry behind the three stages - nitration of phenol; reduction of a nitro group to amine; formation of an amide.

    We're only on unit two right now, and I have read the unit three organic chem notes and they make no sense.

    Thanks so much in advance!
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    the nitration is an electrophilic substitution on phenol by the NO2+ (from nitric acid) ion. It forms a carbocation intermediate (wheland intermediate) before eliminating the hydrogen. You'll get a mixture of products by substitution on the ortho- and para- sites of the phenol (OH is an a/p directing group)

    the reduction can occur by a number of methods, there are lots of reagents for this one. Tin Chloride and HCl is one method.

    Amide formation is normally using an acyl chloride, which would be a nucleophilic substitution by the amine.

    Do you need to have mechanisms? What information do you need to know or not understand from the notes?
 
 
 
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