Hey there! Sign in to join this conversationNew here? Join for free
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    I'm so confused on the difference between Pressure Groups, PACs and 527 groups.
    I know the difference between PACs and 527s. I know what they are, etc etc but I have no idea why or how this fits into the arguments of pressure groups, pluralism and elitism.
    I'm doing A2 Edexcel, I'm not sure which units.. but it's one of the topics is Pressure Groups. What questions on Pressure groups have there been?
    Any help would be great
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Summergirl.x)
    I'm so confused on the difference between Pressure Groups, PACs and 527 groups.
    I know the difference between PACs and 527s. I know what they are, etc etc but I have no idea why or how this fits into the arguments of pressure groups, pluralism and elitism.
    I'm doing A2 Edexcel, I'm not sure which units.. but it's one of the topics is Pressure Groups. What questions on Pressure groups have there been?
    Any help would be great
    I did AS Politics, my A2 theme is the European Union,- but we're doing the same exam board.

    Pressure Groups are:

    Private or voluntary organizations that aim to influence or control particular public policies without actually becoming the government or controlling all public policy.

    PARIES WANT TO BECOME THE GOVERNMENT, PRESSURE GROUPS WANT TO INFLUENCE GOVERNMENT.

    PARTIES HAVE BROAD NARROW POLICY INTEREST, PRESSURE GROUPS TEND TO HAVE NARROW POLICY INTEREST

    PARTIES ARE PRIMARILY POLITICAL,- PRESSURE GROUPS TRY TO AVIOD POLITICS

    PARTIES ARE CONCERNED WITH ELECTONS, MOST PRESSURE GROUPS DO NOT RUN IN ELECTIONS.


    British medical association:
    Powerful medical pressure group, but does not run candidates for political office.

    The countryside alliance is only concerned with country sports/ the countryside

    Action on Smoking and Heath (ASH), wants to only influence a small part of government policy


    Insider: The government sees these groups as legitimate and these groups are therefore given access to decision makers,- involved in regular meetings with ministers/civil servants. Usually don't make a public attack on the government.

    *Insider groups within the state apparatus: As a matter of course these groups are consulted within the decision making process,- with decisions which are relevant to the groups activities. They are “part of the state”,- E.G TEACHERS REPRESENATIVES, POLICE FEDERATION.

    *External groups with insider status: Called upon by government depending on the governments ideological stance,- independent organisations,- not part of the state. PESSURE GROUPS, CHARTIES, TRADE UNIONS

    Outsider: Are not consulted during the decision making process, nor expect to have access to civil servants or ministers,- fewer opportunity to take part in policy direction.

    *Outsider groups not aiming for insider status: Might be a small group set up to fight a small cause quickly. Might oppose the political system so do not want to be part of it (E.G Earth First). CND (campaign for nuclear disarmament), does not need access to decision makers.

    *Outsider groups wanting insider status: May be waiting for a change in government, often work closely with opposition within parliament. E.G the Institute for policy research was given insider status automatically when new labour came to power.


    To enable political participation in national politics,- overcome the democratic deficit between elections.
    E.g. Sometimes able to motivate enough support to stop or amend legislation.
    -
    To enable political participation in local politics: e.g., intense lobbying by the A452 co-ordination group forced a local council to scrap plans to turn the A452 into a dual carriage way.
    -
    To act as a source of specialist knowledge,- since most groups are concerned with a narrow issue they develop an expert view on that idea or issue, many groups attract specialists,- often have access to information valued by decision makers. E.G. MIND and MENCAP often have Government meetings,- in return they get government funding and can have an input in the decision making process.
    -
    Raise questions not raised in party manifestoes,- ensure the issues people are concerned about appear on the political agenda
    -
    Facilitating the representation of minorities,- enable the minority view to be shared to decision makers.
    Helping to protect minority rights,- important as the majority view tends to prevail.
    -
    Allow decision makers to arbitrate between different views,- helps disperse power away from political institutions, decision makers are continually confronted meaning decisions are achieved via compromise. “Better for everyone”.

    BUT:
    UNELECLECTED AND UNREPRESENATATIVE
    DISGUSE THE TRUE NATURE OF POWER,- POWER LIES WITH THOSE WHO HAVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CAPITAL (illusion of consultation)
    NOT NEUTRAL



    The methods used, to some extent, depends upon the status of the pressure group.

    Many groups attempt to gain access to ministers and civil servants, at the earliest possible stage in the decision making process,- THE EARLIER THEIR INPUT, the more chance on making an IMPACT ON LEEGISLATION.
    -> Some groups are consulted as a matter of course. E.g., APCO or the Law society.
    THROUGH: MINISTERS, CIVIL SERVANTS, COURTS, POLITICAL PARTIES, LOBBYISTS.
    They also target parliament (opposition), and political parties.

    Through the MEDIA:- some are solely dependant on the media,- as they have no insider access. Gives them Visibility, a chance the change the political climate, raise issues that require response, raise public concerns, give information.

    Direct Action: Operate outside the formal political process; Can be illegal or violent or organised and highly effective. (E.g. fathers for justice).

    Campaigning techniques: Adverts in the press, paying for PR, producing mainsheets, publicity stunts.
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by super.teve)
    I did AS Politics, my A2 theme is the European Union,- but we're doing the same exam board.

    Pressure Groups are:

    Private or voluntary organizations that aim to influence or control particular public policies without actually becoming the government or controlling all public policy.

    PARIES WANT TO BECOME THE GOVERNMENT, PRESSURE GROUPS WANT TO INFLUENCE GOVERNMENT.

    PARTIES HAVE BROAD NARROW POLICY INTEREST, PRESSURE GROUPS TEND TO HAVE NARROW POLICY INTEREST

    PARTIES ARE PRIMARILY POLITICAL,- PRESSURE GROUPS TRY TO AVIOD POLITICS

    PARTIES ARE CONCERNED WITH ELECTONS, MOST PRESSURE GROUPS DO NOT RUN IN ELECTIONS.


    British medical association:
    Powerful medical pressure group, but does not run candidates for political office.

    The countryside alliance is only concerned with country sports/ the countryside

    Action on Smoking and Heath (ASH), wants to only influence a small part of government policy


    Insider: The government sees these groups as legitimate and these groups are therefore given access to decision makers,- involved in regular meetings with ministers/civil servants. Usually don't make a public attack on the government.

    *Insider groups within the state apparatus: As a matter of course these groups are consulted within the decision making process,- with decisions which are relevant to the groups activities. They are “part of the state”,- E.G TEACHERS REPRESENATIVES, POLICE FEDERATION.

    *External groups with insider status: Called upon by government depending on the governments ideological stance,- independent organisations,- not part of the state. PESSURE GROUPS, CHARTIES, TRADE UNIONS

    Outsider: Are not consulted during the decision making process, nor expect to have access to civil servants or ministers,- fewer opportunity to take part in policy direction.

    *Outsider groups not aiming for insider status: Might be a small group set up to fight a small cause quickly. Might oppose the political system so do not want to be part of it (E.G Earth First). CND (campaign for nuclear disarmament), does not need access to decision makers.

    *Outsider groups wanting insider status: May be waiting for a change in government, often work closely with opposition within parliament. E.G the Institute for policy research was given insider status automatically when new labour came to power.


    To enable political participation in national politics,- overcome the democratic deficit between elections.
    E.g. Sometimes able to motivate enough support to stop or amend legislation.
    -
    To enable political participation in local politics: e.g., intense lobbying by the A452 co-ordination group forced a local council to scrap plans to turn the A452 into a dual carriage way.
    -
    To act as a source of specialist knowledge,- since most groups are concerned with a narrow issue they develop an expert view on that idea or issue, many groups attract specialists,- often have access to information valued by decision makers. E.G. MIND and MENCAP often have Government meetings,- in return they get government funding and can have an input in the decision making process.
    -
    Raise questions not raised in party manifestoes,- ensure the issues people are concerned about appear on the political agenda
    -
    Facilitating the representation of minorities,- enable the minority view to be shared to decision makers.
    Helping to protect minority rights,- important as the majority view tends to prevail.
    -
    Allow decision makers to arbitrate between different views,- helps disperse power away from political institutions, decision makers are continually confronted meaning decisions are achieved via compromise. “Better for everyone”.

    BUT:
    UNELECLECTED AND UNREPRESENATATIVE
    DISGUSE THE TRUE NATURE OF POWER,- POWER LIES WITH THOSE WHO HAVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CAPITAL (illusion of consultation)
    NOT NEUTRAL



    The methods used, to some extent, depends upon the status of the pressure group.

    Many groups attempt to gain access to ministers and civil servants, at the earliest possible stage in the decision making process,- THE EARLIER THEIR INPUT, the more chance on making an IMPACT ON LEEGISLATION.
    -> Some groups are consulted as a matter of course. E.g., APCO or the Law society.
    THROUGH: MINISTERS, CIVIL SERVANTS, COURTS, POLITICAL PARTIES, LOBBYISTS.
    They also target parliament (opposition), and political parties.

    Through the MEDIA:- some are solely dependant on the media,- as they have no insider access. Gives them Visibility, a chance the change the political climate, raise issues that require response, raise public concerns, give information.

    Direct Action: Operate outside the formal political process; Can be illegal or violent or organised and highly effective. (E.g. fathers for justice).

    Campaigning techniques: Adverts in the press, paying for PR, producing mainsheets, publicity stunts.
    Thank you for giving me the notes, but this is UK politics. I'm doing US politics now which is kinda different to the AS stuff we did last year. :L Don't worry, thanks anyway
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Summergirl.x)
    Thank you for giving me the notes, but this is UK politics. I'm doing US politics now which is kinda different to the AS stuff we did last year. :L Don't worry, thanks anyway
    Hehehe, i'm sorry :')

    I'm doing EU Politics, so I'm not sure about US Pressure groups fml.
    Sorry
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by super.teve)
    Hehehe, i'm sorry :')

    I'm doing EU Politics, so I'm not sure about US Pressure groups fml.
    Sorry
    S'ok,
    I wish I was doing EU politics, I bet it would be so much easier than US politics :|
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Summergirl.x)
    S'ok,
    I wish I was doing EU politics, I bet it would be so much easier than US politics :|
    IT'S HORRIBLE!
    Not easy at all, ah

    There's no proper text book, things change daily, outdated information, loads of opinions and stuff.
    I have so many notes too
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by super.teve)
    IT'S HORRIBLE!
    Not easy at all, ah

    There's no proper text book, things change daily, outdated information, loads of opinions and stuff.
    I have so many notes too
    Oh, well there is no proper one for American too.. and no one knows about America. Last year I would spend hours with my dad getting him to explain stuff to me - he hasn't a clue about America though :/
    I saw a really good European one though.. but it was all in french.. looked really useful though lol.
 
 
 
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • Poll
    Will you be richer or poorer than your parents?
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

    Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

    Quick reply
    Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.