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    I'm not too sure on the concept of cations distorting the shape of the electron density. Eg something like this:



    Does the cation, Hydrogen here, cause the shape to be like this as it pulls electrons towards it ? Or is this because of the difference in electronegativity ?
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    no, the Chlorine is more electronegative, so it pulls the electrons in the bonds closer towards it, causing that shape,a s there are more electrons towards the chlorine than the hydrogen.
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    I think you've picked a 'bad example' to try and rationalise the electron density in terms of polarisability of anions because HCl is predominantly covalent.

    Polar covalent bonds (such as HCl) is best explained in terms of electronegativity whilst ionic bonds with parital covalent character (such as AlCl3) is better described in terms of polarisation of anions by high charge density cations
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    A region where the chance of finding electrons is greatest.
 
 
 
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