# AS Psy.Watch

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#1
Hi. Have not been on for a few days, as my Border Collie ***** welped over the weekend and I've been trying to catch up on sleep! One good thing about her taking 30hrs, was that I was able to have a good read of my text books (how sad is that?!), while I waited for the pups to arrive!
Anyway, maybe Helen or someone can help. I'm still struggling with getting my head around variables! I can't believe it, but it's still not gone in! I've been looking at some past exam questions, and I can't seem to be able to either give an even reasonable hypothesis (although I understand them, and how to recognise one-tailed and two-tailed), or be able to recognise the IV and DV.
Can anyone give me some more hypotheses as I've done all the ones on s-cool and my text books? I'm hoping that I just need more practise, but as I've run out of questions, I'm stuck!
I seem to be able to recognise them when I've looked at the answers, but I don't seem to be able to relate what I've learned to new questions. Help!
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16 years ago
#2
Hello

A one-tailed hypothesis predicts the direction of the effect - so a hypothesis would state "there will be an decrease in the recall of words due to the effects of alcohol.

A two-tailed hypothesis anticipates a difference or correlation but not the direction - so a hypothesis would state "the intake of alcohol will have an effect on the amount of words recalled". It doesn't say whether there will be an increase or a decrease, just that there will be an effect but it is unkown.

You just have to look for key words such as, "increase", "decrease", "positively correlated", "negatively correlated", "positive effects", "negative efects". These words suggest that the hypothesis is a one-tailed hpothesis as the results are going in one direction - increasing or decreasing.

IV - just remember to look at what they are changing. So in the experiment above, alcohol intake is the independent variable as one group would be given alcohol and one group would not.

DV - the thing that the experimenter is measuring. In the experiment above it would be the recall of words. How many words are recalled.

I have to go to a tutorial now but it'll have a look for some examples when I get back.

Helen Brownsell

P.S. Why does the weather change so quickly in Hull. Yesterday, it was sunny and bright but now....rain, cloud, wind....when will it make up its mind. Due to being near the coast I suppose.
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#3
Hi Helen,
Yes, I've just been planting in the garden and I'm soaked through- so it's not just coz you're near the coast. I can always guarantee that if I'm washing the windows, or doing something outside, it'll rain! (Murphy's Law relates to yours truly).
Love Jacq
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16 years ago
#4
I have three questions from an old as level revision guide but they dont have much about Iv, DV and hypothesis testing. They are related to the questions you will get in the exam though. As they are all quite long I will put them in separate posts. The first two have answers to them so you can post a message if you get stuck. The last one doesnt but I can try and help as much as possible. The marks awarded for each question are given in brackets next to it. Hope this helps a bit. I also have my text book Psychology: A new introduction for as. By Gross, McIlveen, Coolican, Clamp and Russell. If you dont use this book, I can give you some examples out of there which may have more of a connection to the IV, DV and hypothesis.

Helen Brownsell
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16 years ago
#5
1) A group of psychology students design a memory experiment to investigate the effects of organisation on recall. They give one group of participants a list of words in a random order. A second group of participants are given the same list of words but the words are organised into categories.

The participants were randomly allocated to the two experimental conditions by drawing numbers out of a hat.

After studying the list of words for 30 seconds, the participants had to wait another 30 seconds before recalling as many words as they could. Afterwards, they were debriefed and thanked for taking part.

a. Name the experimental design used in this study. [1]
b. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of this kind of design. [2+2]
c. Why was it necessary to randomly allocate participants to conditions? [2]
d. After the experiment, the participants were debriefed. Describe two things that might have been included in this debriefing. [2+2]
e. Suggest a suitable hypothesis for this experiment. [1]
f. Suggest one possible extraneous varibale in this study and explain why this might affect the findingd. [1+2]

You could also try saying what the IV and DV are. Also, what type of hypothesis did you suggets; a one tailed or two tailed?
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16 years ago
#6
2) Imagine that you have been asked to carry out a correlational study on the relationship between adult styles of romantic love and early attachment. It will be necessary to devise a questionnaire and calculate two scores for each individual; one score on the adult style of romantic love and one score on early attachment.

Explain how you would carry out such a study.
a. Suggest one suitable question for the questionnaire. [1]
b. Suggest one problem with the question you wrote. [2]
c. How might it be possible to overcome this problem? [2]
d. How would you select respondents to take part in your study? [2]
e. Why would you choose this particular method of selecting respondents? [2]
f. How might you test the reliability of your questionnaire? [3]
g. Describe how you might present your findings. [3]

Again, try to suggest a hypothesis and state whether it is one tailed or two tailed. What are the IV and DV?
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16 years ago
#7
3) A psychology lecturer notices that he can clearly see one of the tables in a college coffee bar from an upstairs window. The lecturer decides to carry out an observation study to discover if males differ from females in the number of friendly acts displayed in their interaction with other people. Friendly acts are defined (operationalisation - this might help you with one of your earlier problems) as smiling and touching. The lecturer recorded the number of smiles and incidents of touching displayed by each participant during an interaction.

To qualify as a participants in the study, the person had to be at the table in the coffee bar and in full view of the lecturer. The participant had to be with only one other person (companion).

The lecturer conducted the observations over a two-week period for a total of 12 separate hours. The same number of male and female participants were observed.

The following data were obtained:
Gender of participant
Gender of companion Male Female
Male 102 140

Female 184 225
Table 1. Number of friendly acts displayed by male and female participants when interacting with either a male or female companion.

a. What type of observational study did the lecturer conduct? [2]
b. Describe the data depicted in Table 1. What may be said about the patterns of friendly acts displayed by males and females when interacting? [3]
c. There may be a danger that observer bias could be present in this study.
i) What is meant by the term observer bias? [3]
ii) Explain one way in which the lecturer might overcome this problem. [2]
d. Name two variables (other than observer bias) the lecturer might have controlled for in his (or her) study. Why might it have been important to control for these variables? [4]
e. Explain why the lecturer should be cautious about generalising his results to all males and females. [3]
f. Discuss one ethical issue raised by this study. [3]

Again, try and look at what the IV and DV would be and propose a one-tailed or two-tailed hypothesis.
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#8
Helen,
this is JUST what I need. Thanks.
I'll do them tomorrow morning when I can get some more ink (my printer's run out), and I can sit and do them at the table- away from the computer.
I'll e-mail my answers around lunchtime.
Thank-you so, so much- this really helps. I've been getting so worked up about research methods, at least if I can get as much practise at exam type questions as poss, you never know, there might be one similar in May (well, I can hope can't I ?).

'speak' to you tomorrow.
cheers.
Jacq
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#9
Hi Helen,
couldn't wait- had to have a go at the first one!

(a) Laboratory experiment
(b)One advantage is that there is good control of variables.
One disadvantage is that there could be participant reactivity(?); or demand characteristics.
(c) to ensure validity of the experiment; i.e. some participants may be better at memorising than others, this ensures a better cross-section of abilities within the groups of participants.
(d) One thing to be included in the de-brief was ask if the list of words was the correct amount (should have it been longer/shorter).
Another thing in the de-brief could have been to assure participants of the confidentiality of the experiments results.
(e) A suitable hypothesis; people remember more if they can give particular meaning to memory.
(f) One extraneous variable could be that it was done in an un-real environment, so participants reacted differently to how they might remember in a natural environment. This would affect the findings because the participants would be more likely to make a conscious effort to remember.
The I.V. is words
The D.V. is memory
The hypothesis is one-tailed.

Hope this is ok. I've kept my answers to a minimum, as I don't feel it's fair to take up your time - especially as I usually write reams & reams - which is why I didn't do so well in Jan!
Question (a) floored me- I wanted to say Field experiment.
Hope you don't mind my answers, I'm not sure of all the correct words to use yet, but this helps so much you wouldn't believe!
Let me know when I can send you the others- I'm not looking at them till tomorrow, but might it be better if I send them direct to you?I'll wait to hear from you. Anyway, at least my answers may give some others on the Forum a giggle!
Jacq
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16 years ago
#10
Hello

Ok here are the answers. I'll try and add to them if you get a bit stuck.

a. Independent groups design/ independent measures design.

You have got confused between what type of experiment it is and what the design is. The design relates to the type of set up the experiment has and refers to the participants so you can have an independent measures design (participants do one conditions; either the control or experimental group), repeated measures (all participants do both conditions so both do the control and experimental condition) and matched pairs desing (the group is split into two equal groups. Each member of one group is
similar to another member of the other group and they do one condition each).

b. Your answer is good for a lab experiment but unfortunately that answer is incorrect. I'm not sure whether they would mark it as correct because it is.....but the other answer is wrong. You'll have to check! The answer is supposed to be something like:

Advantage - there would be a practice effect as the participants only do one group.

Disadvantage - you need to have a lot of participants as you cannot reuse the same ones like you do in repeated measures design. However, I think the main criticism is that individual differences are not accounted for. You can have one person who is really good at memory tasks and another person who is in the other group who is not very good at it. This is why matched pairs designs and repeated measure designs are good.

c. This ensures that the two groups are as similar as possible.

However, this is normally only true with a large sample. The larger the sample, the more like the population they will be. I dont think this is a very good answer from the book if I'm honest. Your answer is much better.

d. The experimenter would have told the participants the true purpose of the study (not deceived) and also have assured them that their data would remain confidential.

- to tell the participants they could withdraw at anytime
- to make sure the participants are not psychological or physically harmed - you could give them a phone number to call if they have any queries etc.

e. Participants remember more words if they are given an organised list than a non-organised list of words.

Your answer is ok but I would include the idea of organisation and categories as well as the meanings of words. Make it specific but not too long. I always hated writed hypothesis. Theyre always too vague or too descriptive, too long or too short. Ahh!
The answer above is a one tailed hypothesis as they state that there will be an increase in words recalled. Your hypothesis is also one tailed (well done) as you say more words will be recalled.

f. The participants in one condition may be tested at a different time of day. People might have better memories earlier in the day and that would explain why they had better recall rather than the actual memory condition.

Once again your answer is fine and you'd definately get marks for it. When it is in a lab setting and controlled a great deal you can use the term "lacks ecological validity" to explain that the results may not be the same as those that would be obtained in the real word. Our teacher used to say it is a sexy word in psychology.

So you didnt do too bad. Just a slip up in the first question. You can contact me again whenever you want and however you want. It honestly makes no difference to me. Just keep practicing and you'll be fine. You deserve to get a good mark for all the work you are doing.

Helen Brownsell
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#11
Hi Helen,
thanks very much. We've not really touched on design (I'm assuming we'll be doing it in class, but I only know what I've read in the text books). I'll do some reading up on it. Yes, it's funny, but I like 'ecological validity'. It seems to roll off the tongue!
I'll be doing the other questions around lunchtime- and for the first time- I'm actually looking forward to it. It's really useful to have feeback, rather than just getting marked which is how it's done in college. It also means that I'm not having to wait a week as I hsave to do with college - by which time I've forgotten what I've put.
I've always been interested in this subject, and as I'm looking my 40th birthday in the face this year, I'm taking stock. That's why I decided to do the course - second childhood perhaps? (I'm sure there's a really good psy. terminology for it!)
'speak' to you laater.
Jacq
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