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    (Original post by purplefrog)
    everything else... I've just started RS revision :p: just did the spec question on analogy vs symbols... my answers seems reflective of the AO1 points... just forgot to mention that symbols can be used when words can't express something >.<
    Oh ahaha. Well good luck!!
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    I'm stressing SO much because I am teaching this subject to myself. It clashed with the other subjects I wanted to take at school. I have a tutor but she's really no good! I want to get an A but I'm struggling with essays and the exam is in about 2 weeks ahh. Just wondering if anybody perhaps has any good revision notes or maybe even a sample essay they could send me. That would be amazing because I just need to know if I'm on the right track. If anybody could reply back to me, it would be much appreciated! Thanks
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    You can afford to miss out one topic from philosophy and ethics as even if they come up you'd still be left with a choice of 2/3, I'm missing out nature of God and meta ethics although they look likely to come up, I hope the other questions are nice!
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    Verification and falsification has not come up yet in religious language..i hope it does and hope religious experience comes up too
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    Yay philosophy, I'm going to destroy all moral systems with my nihilism, error theorists ftw.
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    2 weeks and counting.. I'm hoping for conscience and something on afterlife would be a God send (lol, pardon the pun..). I'm just so scared! Haven't done half the revision I should have and I need to get a few practice essays in before the actual exam.

    Does anyone else have the AQA Biol 4 resit in the afternoon, too? I do! As if a 3 hour exam wasn't enough..
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    (Original post by xbabycakes)
    2 weeks and counting.. I'm hoping for conscience and something on afterlife would be a God send (lol, pardon the pun..). I'm just so scared! Haven't done half the revision I should have and I need to get a few practice essays in before the actual exam.

    Does anyone else have the AQA Biol 4 resit in the afternoon, too? I do! As if a 3 hour exam wasn't enough..
    It would be a miracle if conscience came up

    Also, high UCL psych buddy!
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    Has anyone got any notes on Omni-benevolent God- I was i'll when my teacher taught this and theres nothing really in the book!
    Also My Ethics teacher said he thinks they could give us a question on the differences between normative ethics and meta ethics! how the hell would anyone answer that!?
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    (Original post by jbarfie)
    Has anyone got any notes on Omni-benevolent God- I was i'll when my teacher taught this and theres nothing really in the book!
    Also My Ethics teacher said he thinks they could give us a question on the differences between normative ethics and meta ethics! how the hell would anyone answer that!?
    Here's my omnibenevolence notes:
    God is good

    • Medieval philosophers influenced by Greeks held God was simple not complex (Ockham’s razors). To describe God was to describe a perfect being (Anselm) Aquinas – ‘he lacks no excellence’
    • Only perfect being worthy of worship – consists of goodness along w/ omnipotence & omniscience
    • Swinburne – draws analogy w/ parent involving both punish/reward

    Euthyrphro Dilemma

    • What is the connection between God and objective moral good? - Omnipotence vs. omnibenevlonce
    • Voluntarism - morality seems arbitrary – can we really reject the idea that there is an objective moral standard independent of God?
    • Platonism – limits power & trad Christian sees him as highest reality & foundation of morality

    Does God have a choice?

    • If God only does ‘good’ things then it would seem that when he does something moral he couldn’t have done otherwise = really a moral action? (synonymous w/ free will and determinism + moral responsibility)
    • However, not all accept that the goodness of an action is in the intention – only virtue ethics does (which is the foundation of Christian though)

    What do we mean by good?

    • meta ethics links
    • If we take voluntarist approach, can apply Moore’s open q. argument – ‘is what God wills good?’
    • Basing our lives on so called ‘will of God’ just subjective pref – Emotivism & prescriptivism

    Problem of Evil

    • God’s goodness of lesser value if he has to do good & is not freely choosing to do good actions
    • Logically impossible for God to do evil (omnipotence definition)
    • Links w/ miracles – if God is omnibenevolent then why water into wine & allow holocaust?
    • God often see as partisan on old testament e.g. Joshua 10 defending Israelites in their violent battles
    • Old testament actions often see as immoral e.g. Abraham sacrifice of Isaac
    • Counter-arguments – epistemic distance + interpretation/creation of Bible

    Should God reward & punish?

    Judgement day fundamental concept in Christian + ultimately rewarded/punished in heaven or hell

    Yes

    • Kant – summum bonum suggest good God should reward. We are obliged by duty to try and bring about, is a world in which moral behaviour leads to happiness. Moral arguments states there must be an afterlife in which we are rewarded for moral actions (free will & determinism & moral responsibility link)
    • Reflects trad views about afterlife & God as farther figure
    • If God is just then surely people should be rewarded for their behaviour appropriately – problem of evil Hick everyone goes to heaven link
    • Reward & punish central to our understanding of right & wrong (Skinner ? free will and determinism ? conscience)

    No

    • Means religious do good for hypothetical imperative (Kant) – however, omniscient God would see through
    • If he’s omniscient seems contradictory to judge actions he caused (free will + Boethius)
    • Omnibenevolence inc. forgiveness – if he is unable to forgive is he somehow less then than humans?
    • Determinism – evil actions explained by determinism (undermines C concept of free will + free will defence)
    • If morality is just about reward & punishment then doesn’t it become entirely empty?

    Can hell exist?

    • Against some C views + POE evil is illusion/separate from God
    • Does the crime fit the punishment? i.e. how can a finite crime warrant infinite punishment? Inc. original sin fruit for thousands of years of evil?
    • Universalists e.g. Hick – ultimately all humans will be saved
    • Swinburne – human freedom must inc. freedom to damn ourselves
    • Others give symbolic interpretation. Heaven & hell not real but intended to inspire commitment to teachings (religious language + hypothetical imperative)
    As for meta ethics, I'd do this:

    what is normative ethics and meta-ethics
    Ethical naturalism - by looking for what is right, it is being a normative theory by telling us what it means to be good and how to get there (by looking at the environment)
    Intuitionism - this is more related to conscience, but by saying good is a universal concept, it is bordering normative ethics but it doesn't tell us how we can be good or to understand our intuition
    Emotivism - not a normative ethical theory at all, can be extended to normative ethical theories are just their own boo-hurrah e.g. Bentham's theory is just hurrah pleasure and Kant is just hurrah universalism
    Prescriptivism - this is very much a normative ethical theory as it's about writing laws which all must follow - similar to Kant
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    It would be a miracle if conscience came up

    Also, high UCL psych buddy!
    haha, totally agree and hello! though.. I'm doubting by the day I'll get the grades. Especially for philosophy, it's only 2 weeks away! waaaaaaah
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    (Original post by xbabycakes)
    haha, totally agree and hello! though.. I'm doubting by the day I'll get the grades. Especially for philosophy, it's only 2 weeks away! waaaaaaah
    How did your Jan results go? I need a B both exams to get the A overall. With the pot luck nature of examiners and the different subjects that come up I could get anything from an A* - D haha. How's psychology going?
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    (Original post by jbarfie)
    Has anyone got any notes on Omni-benevolent God- I was i'll when my teacher taught this and theres nothing really in the book!
    Also My Ethics teacher said he thinks they could give us a question on the differences between normative ethics and meta ethics! how the hell would anyone answer that!?
    Concerning the possibility of a meta/normative ethics question, I don't think the question would be about the differences between them as that is factual and hence doesn't leave much room for any AO2. More likely I reckon would be to set a question implicitly demanding that you understand the differences like (off the top of my head) "Assess the view that biocentric views are meaningless".
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    Is it just me or do you find that the Ethics mark schemes seem a lot vaguer and more 'wishy-washy' compared to the philosophy ones?
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    How did your Jan results go? I need a B both exams to get the A overall. With the pot luck nature of examiners and the different subjects that come up I could get anything from an A* - D haha. How's psychology going?
    Lucky you! Well, January was messy. It wasn't a good time for me, so as a result I got an A in psychology and a D in biology (yeaah.. fml). It was a middling A in psych though, so I'm hedging my bets with getting an A* overall. That leaves philosophy to get an A* in.. so it adds a lot of pressure. I think getting an A is realistic, but I guess it's all down to the questions on the day.

    I haven't really done a lot of revision for pschology, but it's one of my last exams so I'm concentrating on my resit biol 4 and this. I seriously think I'll be heading for queen mary though, the grades for UCL really are impossible.
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    Here's my omnibenevolence notes:


    As for meta ethics, I'd do this:

    what is normative ethics and meta-ethics
    Ethical naturalism - by looking for what is right, it is being a normative theory by telling us what it means to be good and how to get there (by looking at the environment)
    Intuitionism - this is more related to conscience, but by saying good is a universal concept, it is bordering normative ethics but it doesn't tell us how we can be good or to understand our intuition
    Emotivism - not a normative ethical theory at all, can be extended to normative ethical theories are just their own boo-hurrah e.g. Bentham's theory is just hurrah pleasure and Kant is just hurrah universalism
    Prescriptivism - this is very much a normative ethical theory as it's about writing laws which all must follow - similar to Kant
    Thanks that really helps! Don't really wont a question on it though nor the meta-ethics one, but if they do I only need 130/200 for an A so might be ok! But I woud love the A* :3
    Thanks again!
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    Seeing as there is no mark scheme available for the jan 2011 papers... i was wondering if people could give me feedback on the following essay response (I've bullet pointed what i wrote to summarise)

    Critically assess the view that the conscience is the voice of reason
    Spoiler:
    Show
    Intro: Define Conscience
    Para 1:
    Aquinas --> God = Pure Reason
    We find out God's will using Reason
    Conscience is our Reason telling us what to do
    Synderesis - innate knowing of right/wrong through reason
    Synderesis rule --> tend to do good things, avoid evil
    Conscientia - use of reason and synderesis to make a decision. It is our conscience telling us what to do --> it finds this out through reason
    conscience can be wrong --> due to misguided reason and pursuit of apparent goods
    we can train conscience as our ability to reason develops

    Para 2:
    Freud --> Not reason, but internalised commands and feelings of rejection from childhood
    stored in unconscious superego
    guilt occurs when superego clashes with Id (our desires)
    our conscious ego polices between the too
    a dominant superego is not healthy
    conscious is thus not reason, but is a series of irrational commands that we've suppressed within ourselves

    Para 3:
    Fromm --> Authoritative conscience.
    conscience is a guilty feeling formed by disobeying figures of authority
    not rational, the conscience weakens our personality making us more susceptible to following orders
    example: germans got manipulated by the nazi govt to turn in jewish people to the SS

    Para 4:
    Fromm --> Humanistic conscience
    This develops through our reflections on ours and others' experiences
    we then develop a sense of right and wrong that's constantly changing
    we come to these ideas of right and wrong through reflections and reasoning
    thus shows conscience can be voice of reason

    Para 5:
    Piaget --> Developmental Conscience model --> Autonomous Conscience
    after age of 10/11, we start to develop our ability to reason
    this allows us to critically examine rules and for us to come up with our own moral guidelines
    these are derived through our ability to reason
    when we feel guilty, it is because we broke our moral guidelines obtained from reason --> thus a conscience is the voice of our reason

    Para 6:
    Newman --> Voice of God
    Not reason as the conscience innately intuits God's will


    I didn't know how I could evaluate these points though. Any suggestions?
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    (Original post by prince_of_paupers)
    Seeing as there is no mark scheme available for the jan 2011 papers... i was wondering if people could give me feedback on the following essay response (I've bullet pointed what i wrote to summarise)

    Critically assess the view that the conscience is the voice of reason
    Spoiler:
    Show
    Intro: Define Conscience
    Para 1:
    Aquinas --> God = Pure Reason
    We find out God's will using Reason
    Conscience is our Reason telling us what to do
    Synderesis - innate knowing of right/wrong through reason
    Synderesis rule --> tend to do good things, avoid evil
    Conscientia - use of reason and synderesis to make a decision. It is our conscience telling us what to do --> it finds this out through reason
    conscience can be wrong --> due to misguided reason and pursuit of apparent goods
    we can train conscience as our ability to reason develops

    Para 2:
    Freud --> Not reason, but internalised commands and feelings of rejection from childhood
    stored in unconscious superego
    guilt occurs when superego clashes with Id (our desires)
    our conscious ego polices between the too
    a dominant superego is not healthy
    conscious is thus not reason, but is a series of irrational commands that we've suppressed within ourselves

    Para 3:
    Fromm --> Authoritative conscience.
    conscience is a guilty feeling formed by disobeying figures of authority
    not rational, the conscience weakens our personality making us more susceptible to following orders
    example: germans got manipulated by the nazi govt to turn in jewish people to the SS

    Para 4:
    Fromm --> Humanistic conscience
    This develops through our reflections on ours and others' experiences
    we then develop a sense of right and wrong that's constantly changing
    we come to these ideas of right and wrong through reflections and reasoning
    thus shows conscience can be voice of reason

    Para 5:
    Piaget --> Developmental Conscience model --> Autonomous Conscience
    after age of 10/11, we start to develop our ability to reason
    this allows us to critically examine rules and for us to come up with our own moral guidelines
    these are derived through our ability to reason
    when we feel guilty, it is because we broke our moral guidelines obtained from reason --> thus a conscience is the voice of our reason

    Para 6:
    Newman --> Voice of God
    Not reason as the conscience innately intuits God's will


    I didn't know how I could evaluate these points though. Any suggestions?
    Very hard to find fault, but a few general things:

    - Just for flow I'd put Newman before Freud etc.
    - Freud and psychs do actually agree that conscience is reason if conditioned to be so. So someone who is bought up Christian in psychologists eyes do have a religious conscience that is the voice of God as they are conditioned to do so, doesn't mean God exists, however
    - Mostly in relation to Newman, bring in the Euthyphro dillemma. So if they take an intellectualist view point i.e. something is good and God commands it because of this, it could be argued that it's our reason, God given, that tells us what is good

    TBH don't even need to include that, seems very good!

    (Original post by xbabycakes)
    Lucky you! Well, January was messy. It wasn't a good time for me, so as a result I got an A in psychology and a D in biology (yeaah.. fml). It was a middling A in psych though, so I'm hedging my bets with getting an A* overall. That leaves philosophy to get an A* in.. so it adds a lot of pressure. I think getting an A is realistic, but I guess it's all down to the questions on the day.

    I haven't really done a lot of revision for pschology, but it's one of my last exams so I'm concentrating on my resit biol 4 and this. I seriously think I'll be heading for queen mary though, the grades for UCL really are impossible.
    Did UCL specify the A*? You'll do fantastic I'm sure!
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    Here's my omnibenevolance notes
    Prescriptivism - this is very much a normative ethical theory as it's about writing laws
    HTML Code:
    [HTML][HTML][HTML]
    [/HTML][/HTML][/HTML]which all must follow - similar to Kant
    YOU ARE AMAZING!!! Thank you SO much for those notes! Could you possibly post your omnipotent ones too? (We had a mix up with teachers at this point in the course so I have v sparse notes on this topic and I reckon it is likely to come up in the exam!)
    I'm sure you'll get an A*!

    ---also would anyone be willing to share/send me their notes on RELIGIOUS LANGUAGE please as I've just revised it all and want to check I've included eeeverything! Thanks in advance and hope everyone's revision is going well...
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    (Original post by mytsrusername)
    YOU ARE AMAZING!!! Thank you SO much for those notes! Could you possibly post your omnipotent ones too? (We had a mix up with teachers at this point in the course so I have v sparse notes on this topic and I reckon it is likely to come up in the exam!)
    I'm sure you'll get an A*!

    ---also would anyone be willing to share/send me their notes on RELIGIOUS LANGUAGE please as I've just revised it all and want to check I've included eeeverything! Thanks in advance and hope everyone's revision is going well...
    Here's all my philosophy notes, just write back if you don't understand the abbreviations!
    Attached Files
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    Did UCL specify the A*? You'll do fantastic I'm sure!
    unfortunately. I think it's cause I applied with a B in biology. Boo
 
 
 
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