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    Can you simplify this for me?

    Ordinarily protons repel each other, but in the nucleus the "nuclear strong force" can hold them together, if they are not too far apart

    Some nuclei are sufficiently large that the forces holding things together and the electrical repulsions are about the same, so the nucleus is not as stable as others.

    A number of things can happen to make the nucleus more stable.
    Two protons and two neutrons (an alpha particle) can be ejected making the nucleus smaller.

    An electron can be taken into the nucleus where it combines with a proton to form a neutron.
    (called K-capture, or electron capture.)

    The opposite can happen, where a neutron decomposes into a proton and an electron. The proton stays in the nucleus, but the electron is ejected and is known as a beta- particle.

    Presumably, the resulting nucleus is more stable than the original, but some nuclei will undergo multiple decays before they become non-radioactive
    :confused::confused::confused:


    Additional question: what's the composition of a proton, neutron electron? How can a neutron decompose to form an electron/proton?
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    Okay, basically there are two different forces at play here - the electromagnetic force (charges) and the nuclear strong force. The latter is stronger than the former but the distance it works on is much smaller.

    When we have large nuclei (such as uranium) the strong force struggles to hold the nucleus together because there are so many protons creating a greater and greater electromagnetic force to build (like charges repel). So in order to reduce the electromagnetic force a number of things can happen but all are collectively known as radiation. All of the things you've listed above are types of radiation that can occur depending on the type of nucleus - radioactive elements emit radiation to become a more stable element, in the case of uranium it will eventually decay to become lead (stable).

    The substructure of protons and neutrons (types of hadrons) are made of quarks and an electron are an example of a lepton. This is a whole topic in itself and so unless you need to learn about it, it's probably not worth your time
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    (Original post by EierVonSatan)
    Okay, basically there are two different forces at play here - the electromagnetic force (charges) and the nuclear strong force. The latter is stronger than the former but the distance it works on is much smaller.

    When we have large nuclei (such as uranium) the strong force struggles to hold the nucleus together because there are so many protons creating a greater and greater electromagnetic force to build (like charges repel). So in order to reduce the electromagnetic force a number of things can happen but all are collectively known as radiation. All of the things you've listed above are types of radiation that can occur depending on the type of nucleus - radioactive elements emit radiation to become a more stable element, in the case of uranium it will eventually decay to become lead (stable).

    The substructure of protons and neutrons (types of hadrons) are made of quarks and an electron are an example of a lepton. This is a whole topic in itself and so unless you need to learn about it, it's probably not worth your time
    Hey I'm studying chemistry and I thought radioactivity was something different to what you've said.

    So the electrostatic electron between the electrons and nucleons hold the entire atomic structure together? I hold the electrostatic attraction allowed the electrons to orbit around the nucleus.

    I thought radioactivity was due to the increased nucleus and consequently the increase in electron 'shells'. The electrons on the outermost shell are more likely to removed because of the shielding effect. Am I wrong?

    Explain how the increase in protons need an increase in electrostatic attraction.
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    Hey

    Your getting into strange teritory here. For the purposes of you and me, its probably easiest to consider the nucleus of the atom in isolation when your talking about radioactivty and nuclear stability. Don't worry about the electrons, theyre off outside doing their own thing.

    As mentioned, positively charged protons will repel each other due to the electrostatic force. However pairs of protons and/or neutrons are attracted at close range by the strong nuclear force. As the nucleus gets bigger and the strength of the proton-proton repulsion increases, a proportionally greater number of neutrons are needed to compensate by spacing the protons apart and allowing more strong nuclear interactions.

    If you have a nucleus with too many neutrons, they may undergo beta decay to form a proton and electron instead. If there are too few, you can get electron capture, where the nucleus traps and electron and this combines with a proton to form a neutron. Alpha decay is good to reduce the mass of excessively heavy nuclei.

    Thats as much as i can explain. As to why some nuclei can have too many neutrons, i dont know the answer to that. Ask a nuclear physicist :P

    http://www.algebralab.org/practice/p...fstability.xml
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    (Original post by Blocker)
    Hey

    Your getting into strange teritory here. For the purposes of you and me, its probably easiest to consider the nucleus of the atom in isolation when your talking about radioactivty and nuclear stability. Don't worry about the electrons, theyre off outside doing their own thing.

    As mentioned, positively charged protons will repel each other due to the electrostatic force. However pairs of protons and/or neutrons are attracted at close range by the strong nuclear force. As the nucleus gets bigger and the strength of the proton-proton repulsion increases, a proportionally greater number of neutrons are needed to compensate by spacing the protons apart and allowing more strong nuclear interactions.

    If you have a nucleus with too many neutrons, they may undergo beta decay to form a proton and electron instead. If there are too few, you can get electron capture, where the nucleus traps and electron and this combines with a proton to form a neutron. Alpha decay is good to reduce the mass of excessively heavy nuclei.

    Thats as much as i can explain. As to why some nuclei can have too many neutrons, i dont know the answer to that. Ask a nuclear physicist :P

    http://www.algebralab.org/practice/p...fstability.xml
    Thanks for that cleared that up! A well deserved +1

    Is electrostatic attractions = electromegatic attraction?

    Do they mean the same thing?? Do the repulsions between protons, the attraction between electrons and protons and the attraction that an atoms has for an electron ALL ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION?
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    Yes, indeed. electrostatic = electromagnetic to all intents and purposes. I tend to use the former just cause thats what ive heard more often but theres no need to worry about it.

    And yes, the proton- proton repulsion and proton electron attraction are both electrostatic forces. Pairs of protons repel since they have the same (+ve) charge, while an electron-proton pair attracts since they have different charges (one +ve, one -ve). An atom has electrons attracted to the nucleus due to the +ve protons attracting the -ve electrons.

    All good?
 
 
 
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