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    for golden rice how much detail do we need to know?
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    (Original post by tesha_al)
    why you gotta say that? I hated plant transport!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! it can be transported in the xylem too right? all i can remember is plant hormone gets transported by diffusion active transport and mass flow...explain them if you can my knowledge is a bit rusty.....
    I got a little document of notes about plant transport if you'd like that? I reckon its a long shot for them to test on that. major synoptic things they could probably throw is mitosis, transcription, nervous system synapse (a2), maybe enzymes for immobilising enzymes in biotech. I wouldn't worry about synoptic so much even if its present I doubt there'll be loads of it.
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    (Original post by tesha_al)
    why you gotta say that? I hated plant transport!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! it can be transported in the xylem too right? all i can remember is plant hormone gets transported by diffusion active transport and mass flow...explain them if you can my knowledge is a bit rusty.....
    Okay thank you, that's really helpful

    haha i'm sorry! i hate plant transport too. i dont think it will come up, hopefully. I cant remember anything about it from AS, but no i dont think plant hormones can be transported in the xylem. all it says in the textbook/revision guide is:
    auxins are moved around the plant to control tropism. they move by diffusion and active transport over short distances, and via phloem over long distances.
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    How important is all this meristem stuff (2.4.2) do people think? It's not in my revision guide so i haven't really done much revision on it, not sure if i should bother :/
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    (Original post by sportycricketer)
    for golden rice how much detail do we need to know?
    Main aim of it, few of functions of vitamin A, and name of the 2 enzymes, CRT 1 from the bacterium and phytoene synthetase from the daffodil. And I think the 3 points made by green peace who are against GM food. The latter ain't so important but the others I'd say revise.
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    (Original post by atman7)
    Main aim of it, few of functions of vitamin A, and name of the 2 enzymes, CRT 1 from the bacterium and phytoene synthetase from the daffodil. And I think the 3 points made by green peace who are against GM food. The latter ain't so important but the others I'd say revise.
    well yeah I know those ones but like many people have the whole multistep reaction in their notes which is really worrying me. They have info about diff restriction enzymes etc??
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    (Original post by sportycricketer)
    well yeah I know those ones but like many people have the whole multistep reaction in their notes which is really worrying me. They have info about diff restriction enzymes etc??
    you mean the precusor molecules it makes before getting to Beta-carotene? I don't know about the different restriction enzymes? I only know the ones I mentioned in my previous post. I don't think the different restriction enzymes are essential
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    (Original post by sportycricketer)
    for golden rice how much detail do we need to know?
    Doubt you need to know the enzymes introduced to the cell for the production of beta-carotene but you need to know that:
    -Rice plants contain Beta carotene in the inedible parts of the plant like leaves, its a photosynthetic pigment so is required for phososynthesis.
    -the endosperm however (the rice grain) doesnt contain Beta carotene and that is the edible part.
    - beta carotene is turned into Vitamin A in the gut
    - The metabolic pathway for the production of beta carotene in the endosperm was found to only have 2 enzymes missing which via genetic engineering were introduced into the plant.
    - now beta carotene is able to be produced in the endosperm and so we can get a supply of beta carotene

    this is more signicant to those in developing countries who rely mostly on rice and are defficient in vitamin A

    Vitamin A has various functions:

    required for
    eyesight (it forms part of the visual pigment rhodospin)
    cell growth and development (involved in the synthesis of many glycoproteins)
    epithelial tissue (needed for maintenacne and differentiation of epethilial cells, helps reduce infections)
    bone (essential for growth of bones)

    the stuff in brackets i guess is extra so not sure if you need to know it or not

    also finally,
    golden rice is said to be biofortified which means it contains higher than normal concentrations of a particular nutrient (beta carotene)

    hope this helps and correct me if Im wrong
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    (Original post by atman7)
    I got a little document of notes about plant transport if you'd like that? I reckon its a long shot for them to test on that. major synoptic things they could probably throw is mitosis, transcription, nervous system synapse (a2), maybe enzymes for immobilising enzymes in biotech. I wouldn't worry about synoptic so much even if its present I doubt there'll be loads of it.
    Yes please send em my way!

    (Original post by heartskippedabeat)
    Okay thank you, that's really helpful

    haha i'm sorry! i hate plant transport too. i dont think it will come up, hopefully. I cant remember anything about it from AS, but no i dont think plant hormones can be transported in the xylem. all it says in the textbook/revision guide is:
    auxins are moved around the plant to control tropism. they move by diffusion and active transport over short distances, and via phloem over long distances.
    if synoptic are on biological molecules i will be happy no other synoptic question just that lol.
    quick q. During strenuous exercise the concentration of H+ in muscle tissue increases. A high concentration of H+ ions reduces the ability of Ca+ to bind to protein in the myofibrils. Using this information explain how the increased concentration of hydrogen ions results in a reduction in the force of contraction of a muscle. 5 marks
    I haven't got the markscheme for this one gotta look in up in daylight.
    but it reminds me of enzymes. Calcium ions bind to troponin but when H+ is around there is less binding because of this the shape of troponin won't change and movement of tropomyosin won't occur. the actin binding site will not be open so myosin head will not bind and cross bridgess won't form. . what ya think
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    (Original post by tesha_al)
    Yes please send em my way!


    if synoptic are on biological molecules i will be happy no other synoptic question just that lol.
    quick q. During strenuous exercise the concentration of H+ in muscle tissue increases. A high concentration of H+ ions reduces the ability of Ca+ to bind to protein in the myofibrils. Using this information explain how the increased concentration of hydrogen ions results in a reduction in the force of contraction of a muscle. 5 marks
    I haven't got the markscheme for this one gotta look in up in daylight.
    but it reminds me of enzymes. Calcium ions bind to troponin but when H+ is around there is less binding because of this the shape of troponin won't change and movement of tropomyosin won't occur. the actin binding site will not be open so myosin head will not bind and cross bridgess won't form. . what ya think
    haha aw i cant really remember biological molecules, i cant remember anything from AS really!

    ahh im so bad on muscles but yeah i wouldve said what youve said really
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    I was just wondering about something. On the meiosis spread it says that during Anaphase 2, the chromatids "randomly segregate". What exactly does this mean? I can't really see why this is said because to me it seems a bit pointless saying that they randomly segregate if you're going to end up with the same amount of chromosomes on each side anyway... if that makes any sense.
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    (Original post by Signed Solution)
    I was just wondering about something. On the meiosis spread it says that during Anaphase 2, the chromatids "randomly segregate". What exactly does this mean? I can't really see why this is said because to me it seems a bit pointless saying that they randomly segregate if you're going to end up with the same amount of chromosomes on each side anyway... if that makes any sense.
    During anaphase II, chromatids randomly segregate, meaning that they move to opposite poles of the cells...
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    so in Jan what else came up apart from;
    lac operon
    artificial selection
    mutation
    the three types of muscle
    actions of the brain
    flight of fight response (long question)
    ecology and energy flow through food chains
    large scale fermentation of penicillin
    types of learned behaviour


    and also, does anyone have any idea what may come up tomorrow? like a wild stab in the dark? xx
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    i had a dream about this exam last night, it was more of a nightmare D:
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    (Original post by Arab_Empress)
    Doubt you need to know the enzymes introduced to the cell for the production of beta-carotene but you need to know that:
    -Rice plants contain Beta carotene in the inedible parts of the plant like leaves, its a photosynthetic pigment so is required for phososynthesis.
    -the endosperm however (the rice grain) doesnt contain Beta carotene and that is the edible part.
    - beta carotene is turned into Vitamin A in the gut
    - The metabolic pathway for the production of beta carotene in the endosperm was found to only have 2 enzymes missing which via genetic engineering were introduced into the plant.
    - now beta carotene is able to be produced in the endosperm and so we can get a supply of beta carotene

    this is more signicant to those in developing countries who rely mostly on rice and are defficient in vitamin A

    Vitamin A has various functions:

    required for
    eyesight (it forms part of the visual pigment rhodospin)
    cell growth and development (involved in the synthesis of many glycoproteins)
    epithelial tissue (needed for maintenacne and differentiation of epethilial cells, helps reduce infections)
    bone (essential for growth of bones)

    the stuff in brackets i guess is extra so not sure if you need to know it or not

    also finally,
    golden rice is said to be biofortified which means it contains higher than normal concentrations of a particular nutrient (beta carotene)

    hope this helps and correct me if Im wrong
    Thanks that makes it simplier. I was wondering that would we not have to know the main genetic engineering process for it though as thats what the spec states? For example the 2 genes (Phy and Crt) would have to be inserted in the rice genome.. and all of that plasmids stuff etc?

    Also who thinks plants will come up?!
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    (Original post by Arab_Empress)
    Doubt you need to know the enzymes introduced to the cell for the production of beta-carotene but you need to know that:
    -Rice plants contain Beta carotene in the inedible parts of the plant like leaves, its a photosynthetic pigment so is required for phososynthesis.
    -the endosperm however (the rice grain) doesnt contain Beta carotene and that is the edible part.
    - beta carotene is turned into Vitamin A in the gut
    - The metabolic pathway for the production of beta carotene in the endosperm was found to only have 2 enzymes missing which via genetic engineering were introduced into the plant.
    - now beta carotene is able to be produced in the endosperm and so we can get a supply of beta carotene

    this is more signicant to those in developing countries who rely mostly on rice and are defficient in vitamin A

    Vitamin A has various functions:

    required for
    eyesight (it forms part of the visual pigment rhodospin)
    cell growth and development (involved in the synthesis of many glycoproteins)
    epithelial tissue (needed for maintenacne and differentiation of epethilial cells, helps reduce infections)
    bone (essential for growth of bones)

    the stuff in brackets i guess is extra so not sure if you need to know it or not

    also finally,
    golden rice is said to be biofortified which means it contains higher than normal concentrations of a particular nutrient (beta carotene)

    hope this helps and correct me if Im wrong
    Thats exactly what I know! Thanks anyway! But yeah like the person above has mentioned I was thinking if we ned to know about those 2 genes, hopefully I wont have to learn anything NEW today!
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    does crossing over take place in prophase metaphase or anaphase? surely it's all 3 of them? which one do mark schemes specify?
    and the same with the random assortment and segregation of bivalents and chromatids?
    i know the whole meiosis process, just wanted to clear up, cus from what i can see, it could be all 3 of those
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    Im alright with information, its just that application bit is hard.....
    How mnay mars do your reckon I can get if I am bad at application of knowledge?
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    Just started revising for this exam today...think I can get most of the specification covered by the end of today?


    LOL jk i've been revising for this all of my life
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    (Original post by wilsea05)
    does crossing over take place in prophase metaphase or anaphase? surely it's all 3 of them? which one do mark schemes specify?
    and the same with the random assortment and segregation of bivalents and chromatids?
    i know the whole meiosis process, just wanted to clear up, cus from what i can see, it could be all 3 of those
    crossing over takes place in prophase1 of meosis. x
 
 
 
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