Hey there! Sign in to join this conversationNew here? Join for free
    Offline

    16
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Hope so, thanks and same to you



    Cheers



    Do you reckon they could also ask stuff from unit 1?
    They could. Maybe the phospholipid bilayer/methods of transport between cells/thrombosis. They're the only things I think relate to unit 4 in the slightest. Anything else would be cruel, if there are a lot of questions on that students will complain.
    Offline

    16
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by mooniibuggy)
    I have no idea.

    The spec is pretty vague and it just says:

    Non-specific responses of the body to infection
    12 Describe the non-specific responses of the body to infection, including inflammation, lysozyme action, interferon, and phagocytosis.

    The specific immune response
    13 Explain the roles of antigens and antibodies in the body’s immune response including the involvement of plasma cells, macrophages and antigen-presenting cells.

    14 Distinguish between the roles of B cells (including B memory and B effector cells) and T cells (T helper, T killer and T memory cells) in the body’s immune response.
    In jan 10 they talked about CD4 receptors and HIV. So you never know, just learn everything from the book.
    Offline

    9
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by jam277)
    In jan 10 they talked about CD4 receptors and HIV. So you never know, just learn everything from the book.
    what I don't understand you see how b-cells and macrophages can actually engulf pathogens, so what's the point of producing antibodies just kill them while they are inside the macrophage?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    http://vle.havant.ac.uk/Biology_web/exam_papers.htm

    hey evry1 this website is really good it also has all the past papers up to Jan 2011
    good luck for tomorro!
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Schoolio93)
    thank you so much!! But isn't the info too simple? What about MHC APC complexes, C4 receptors ???
    I don't even think you have to have an understanding of how MHC Type I and MHC Type II works. As a matter of fact, I haven't even read in my textbook that you have to understand how the cell actually produces the MHCs (though I know how they do it). I'm surprised by how vague it is.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Schoolio93)
    what I don't understand you see how b-cells and macrophages can actually engulf pathogens, so what's the point of producing antibodies just kill them while they are inside the macrophage?
    Because antibodies only HELP clear an infection, the pathogens are still phagocytosed in the end. E.g. each antibody has two binding sites, so two pathogens can bind to the antibody at the same time - the pathogens become clumped together. Phagocytes e.g. macrophages then bind to the antibodies and phagocytose the pathogens at once.

    OR

    e.g. antibodies can bind to toxins produced by pathogens, this prevents the toxins from affecting human cells, so the toxins are neturalised, the toxin-antibody complexes are then also phagocytosed.

    Hope that helps!
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Schoolio93)
    what I don't understand you see how b-cells and macrophages can actually engulf pathogens, so what's the point of producing antibodies just kill them while they are inside the macrophage?
    Antibodies help clump microbes together making it easier for the macrophages to engulf and destroy them. They also neutralise toxins bacteria produce among other things.

    (Original post by jam277)
    In jan 10 they talked about CD4 receptors and HIV. So you never know, just learn everything from the book.
    They mentioned CD4 in the question and the MS didn't require you to mention CD4. ''Receptors'' would have got you the mark too.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by jam277)
    In jan 10 they talked about CD4 receptors and HIV. So you never know, just learn everything from the book.
    Yeah I'm definitely doing that! sooo glad this exam's in the afternoon
    Offline

    9
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Phenylethylamine_)
    Because antibodies only HELP clear an infection, the pathogens are still phagocytosed in the end. E.g. each antibody has two binding sites, so two pathogens can bind to the antibody at the same time - the pathogens become clumped together. Phagocytes e.g. macrophages then bind to the antibodies and phagocytose the pathogens at once.

    OR

    e.g. antibodies can bind to toxins produced by pathogens, this prevents the toxins from affecting human cells, so the toxins are neturalised, the toxin-antibody complexes are then also phagocytosed.

    Hope that helps!
    thanks I understand it now!!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Has anyone put on revision notes? I can't find any. This exam is going to be a nightmare, along with Core 3!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by HELPME-ology)
    are the only past papers available for this unit
    jan 10
    june 10
    jan 11
    ???

    are there no 09 papers?
    not that i know of?!!

    cos its a new spec :-/
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by darkiee)
    I hope there is less immunity
    actually yehh i'll agree having gone and revised a little
    im relii confused over the immunity stuff..
    :confused:
    Offline

    9
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by lily92)
    Has anyone put on revision notes? I can't find any. This exam is going to be a nightmare, along with Core 3!
    same here, I can really cope with three hours of exams in one day!!! And then I have got a 2 hour exam on wed and a 1:30 hour exam on thursday. Why are they so narrowly spread -> that reminds me of wide spectrum antibiotic and narrow spectrum antibiotic lol.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    heyy everyone

    jus done a paper and skimmed thru the stuff i can do frm memory...
    do you think its best to do moreeee revision to memorise things and then be able to do papers

    orrr

    just do what you can and then use the mark scheme to knw wha the answers are and learn thatt?!!!

    please reply/help!!!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    What are selection pressures? Are they abiotic/biotic factors that affect reproduction???
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by HELPME-ology)
    heyy everyone

    jus done a paper and skimmed thru the stuff i can do frm memory...
    do you think its best to do moreeee revision to memorise things and then be able to do papers

    orrr

    just do what you can and then use the mark scheme to knw wha the answers are and learn thatt?!!!

    please reply/help!!!
    ideally both, but if I had only time to do one, IMO do more revision to memorise things

    (Original post by imaam)
    What are selection pressures? Are they abiotic/biotic factors that affect reproduction???
    Yep and depending on what the selection pressures are in the environment, different alleles are advantageous and disadvantageous. More advantageous alleles = more likely to survive etc etc.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Yep and depending on what the selection pressures are in the environment, different alleles are advantageous and disadvantageous. More advantageous alleles = more likely to survive etc etc.
    Thanks again! What is the primary response and the secondary response with respect to antigens and anitbodies (relating to june 2010 mark scheme q4b ii )?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    hey guys...wts up?
    wt do u define biodiversity and genetic biodeversity?
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by imaam)
    Thanks again! What is the primary response and the secondary response with respect to antigens and anitbodies (relating to june 2010 mark scheme q4b ii )?
    Haven't looked at ques, coz I'm buzy making condensed notes, but from my memory..

    primary response: first time your immune system comes across a pathogen. takes time to make antibodies etc. etc. so you feel ill (have symptoms)

    secondary response: when you re-encounter the same pathogen, but as you got memory cells and antibodies from before, they quickly recognise the pathogen's antigens and the body is able to conjure up a faster stronger response.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Haven't looked at ques, coz I'm buzy making condensed notes, but from my memory..

    primary response: first time your immune system comes across a pathogen. takes time to make antibodies etc. etc. so you feel ill (have symptoms)

    secondary response: when you re-encounter the same pathogen, but as you got memory cells and antibodies from before, they quickly recognise the pathogen's antigens and the body is able to conjure up a faster stronger response.
    Sorry i meant "primary infection"...
 
 
 
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • Poll
    Brexit voters: Do you stand by your vote?
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

    Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

    Write a reply...
    Reply
    Hide
    Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.