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    Hi guys im tryig to find the Topic 8 spec notes...does anyone have them?
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    (Original post by Jsmalley1)
    does anyone have a link to some past papers (the only one i have is Jan 2011) or a specimen? they are all secure download only on the edexcel website
    here u go

    specimen is too big i cant upload u can find it here http://www.edexcel.com/quals/gce/gce...s/default.aspx
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  1. File Type: pdf 6BI05_01_que_20100625.pdf (393.2 KB, 116 views)
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    I think what's confusing me is the actual method by which EPO, IGF-1 and other recombinant bacteria are inserted into the body or used to produce proteins/hormones, if that makes sense.
    I understand the biology behind how they work such as EPO being a lipid hormone and binding to stems cells in bone marrow producing more RBC its just how is it inserted into the body
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    (Original post by Parthenon93)
    Covers the whole chapter. :eek:

    hey.. +1 for that.. do u have like those for other topics?
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    (Original post by BustyLaRouge)
    If it's worth five marks I would just ignore the stem cell bit.
    If I got this question I'd talk about epo is a protein which binds to a receptor on a particular cell which causes the activation of a second messenger causing a kinase protein cascade. Which acts as a transcription factor to switch on a gene which causes the structure of RNA to be different which changes the structure of proteins which causes more blood cells to be created.

    Pretty much what it states in the book and the examiner's mark schemes are actually massive for alternative answers, markschemes we get are just condensed I believe . (also stem cells can be found in the bone marrow so maybe that's what it's talking about)
    thank you

    sorry if its a stupid question, but what is a "kinase protein cascade"? I've never heard of it. Also, how have you been revising for the article?
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    (Original post by Maria1234)
    it inhabits repolarisation of the heart which means cardiac and stroke volume falls.muscles do not receive enought bloood

    (Original post by ethiokid)
    This is a good question, if we think about what the QT part of the electrocardiogram stands for we can sort this question out.

    The 3 main part of an ECG are as follows:

    P wave - Time taken for atrial systole
    QRS complex - Time taken for ventricular systole
    T wave - Time taken for the repolarisation of the ventricles during diastole

    So the long QT must mean that the time taken for the QRS complex and T wave to happen takes longer. Therefore, we normally say that Long QT increases the time taken for repolarisation.

    This may lead to palpations of the heart, fainting or sudden death.

    Hope that helped you
    Many thanks to both of u..
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    (Original post by chemdweeb1234)
    the bone marrow cells are the haemopoietic STEM CELLS... which epo causes to differentiate INTO reb blood cells.... it may activate and switch certain transcription factors that then go on and activate genes... a good example is the gene coding for the enzyme that produces Haemoglobin
    what are haemopoietic stem cells?
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    http://www.scribd.com/doc/40151716/E...Revision-Notes

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/16109543/R...Revision-Notes
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    Why does there are more sarcoplasmic reticulum in fast twitch fibers?
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    (Original post by groovygramp)
    I think what's confusing me is the actual method by which EPO, IGF-1 and other recombinant bacteria are inserted into the body or used to produce proteins/hormones, if that makes sense.
    I understand the biology behind how they work such as EPO being a lipid hormone and binding to stems cells in bone marrow producing more RBC its just how is it inserted into the body
    Recombinant Bacteria are not inserted into body, ... they produce synthetic recombinant Human Epo which humans inject into themselves
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    (Original post by LibbyU)
    what are haemopoietic stem cells?
    Adult multipotent stem cells found in the bone marrow (from Unit 2)
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    (Original post by chemdweeb1234)
    Recombinant Bacteria are not inserted into body, ... they produce synthetic recombinant Human Epo which humans inject into themselves
    So using recombinant bacteria is simply a way of mass producing proteins/hormones which are then inserted into the body via viruses? or can they just be normal injections?

    I swear to god i've hit the wall. maybe a power nap is needed.
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    (Original post by yagmurainie)
    Why does there are more sarcoplasmic reticulum in fast twitch fibers?
    Dont know exact reason,

    but i'm guessing:

    -> more sarcoplasmic reticulum means more calcium ions can be strored
    -> and thus more calcium ions released when an action potential arrives at neuromuscular junction
    -> and thus more calcium binds to troponin molecules
    -> leading to more myosin binding sites being exposed
    -> allowing more cross-bridges to be formed
    -> and faster
    -> therefore, more powerful contractions and faster contractions -> in line with fast twitch fibres
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    (Original post by yagmurainie)
    Why does there are more sarcoplasmic reticulum in fast twitch fibers?
    I would say that in fast twitch fibres there is more movement and at a quicker rate than in slow twitch muscle. This means that there would be more muscle contractions, therefore, the sliding filament theory occurs more times per second in the fast twitch muscle.

    For more muscle contraction to occur there must be more Ca2+ ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, in order to shift the troponin and tropomyosin from the myosin binding site on the actin filament. One way of doing this would be to increase the sacrcoplasmic reticulum so more Ca2+ can be released at per second.

    Hope this makes sense.
    This is all I could think of.
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    (Original post by groovygramp)
    So using recombinant bacteria is simply a way of mass producing proteins/hormones which are then inserted into the body via viruses? or can they just be normal injections?

    I swear to god i've hit the wall. maybe a power nap is needed.
    ermmm

    think of insulin from gcses

    Recombinant dna is used to mass produce proteins or hromones like insulin and epo... which are then injected into blood directly

    this sucks for diabetics and aneamics .... it means they have to inject themselves everyday

    why not use a viral vector to deliver the gene to the cells to make the protein in the body automatically.... thats what gene therapy does... think back to cystic fibrosis
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    (Original post by LibbyU)
    thank you

    sorry if its a stupid question, but what is a "kinase protein cascade"? I've never heard of it. Also, how have you been revising for the article?
    Check page 181
    and also i rewrote out the diagram of how epo works.

    We did a spider diagram in class of everything particularly important in the article and also key words. I also highlighted stuff in the article I thought was particularly relevant and made a note on topics to look over


    This is a protein kinase cascade
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    (Original post by ethiokid)
    I would say that in fast twitch fibres there is more movement and at a quicker rate than in slow twitch muscle. This means that there would be more muscle contractions, therefore, the sliding filament theory occurs more times per second in the fast twitch muscle.

    For more muscle contraction to occur there must be more Ca2+ ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, in order to shift the troponin and tropomyosin from the myosin binding site on the actin filament. One way of doing this would be to increase the sacrcoplasmic reticulum so more Ca2+ can be released at per second.

    Hope this makes sense.
    This is all I could think of.
    It helped a lot,thankss
    andd one more question in fast twitch fibers both aerobic and anaerobic respiration takes place? or only anaerobic respiration takes place?

    edit: it says on book that ATP pruduction is almost entirely from anaerobic respiration so both aerobic and anaerobic resp. takes place..this was a stupid question though
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    (Original post by chemdweeb1234)
    ermmm

    think of insulin from gcses

    Recombinant dna is used to mass produce proteins or hromones like insulin and epo... which are then injected into blood directly

    this sucks for diabetics and aneamics .... it means they have to inject themselves everyday

    why not use a viral vector to deliver the gene to the cells to make the protein in the body automatically.... thats what gene therapy does... think back to cystic fibrosis
    Great post man =) I think I just needed that link in my head to fit all the theory together +1
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    I haven't started "learning" anything yet ... except for respiration and the homeostasis chapter ...

    Do you think I would be able to do good in the example just by learning what is in the specification?
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    (Original post by Parthenon93)
    I haven't started "learning" anything yet ... except for respiration and the homeostasis chapter ...

    Do you think I would be able to do good in the example just by learning what is in the specification?
    apply your knowledge... understanding is good.... learning details is important
 
 
 

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