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    (Original post by Parthenon93)
    I looked at the word cytokines, and I know I know what it does. I try to remember - blank.

    Help? :confused: Why does it do?

    they stimulate B celss
    check unit 4 immune system
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    (Original post by TheBigI)
    It is a protein that stimulates B cells!
    O yes, activated T-helper cells bind to antigen-MHC complex on B-cells, release cytokines. Cytokines causes B-cells to divide, and then differentiate in plasma cells ... :eek:

    I am doomed. :eek:
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    (Original post by rf1993)
    Basically, the non-specific response requires certain resources like neutrophils etc. There's only limited amounts so if there's an inflammatory response in muscles, it reduces the amount of white blood cells available to other areas (I think )
    Makes sense
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    (Original post by BustyLaRouge)
    1) Think you should know this, it's only a tiny bit I wrote down
    2) No i don't think so, I drew the diagram on page 242 which shows how a drug could effect neurotransmitters
    3) It's similar - habituation (See diagram on 240) is when Ca2+ channels become less responsive so less ca2+ crosses presynaptic membrane. Accommodation is when the vesicles can't be remade fast enough to send an impulse.
    4)Know the difference between the two
    5) Asked my teacher about this today, she said it's good to know the definitions of them, but other than that no.

    Hope this helped

    thank you ...ya it did... cheers bro!
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    (Original post by Parthenon93)
    O yes, activated T-helper cells bind to antigen-MHC complex on B-cells, release cytokines. Cytokines causes B-cells to divide, and then differentiate in plasma cells ... :eek:

    I am doomed. :eek:
    However, I don't think you need it for this exam, as there is very little on immunity and the immune system.
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    (Original post by TheBigI)
    However, I don't think you need it for this exam, as there is very little on immunity and the immune system.

    it might come .. on article for example...its a synoptic paper remember
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    Outline the process by which ‘Atrogin1’ and ‘muRF1’ are expressed asubiquitin ligases. (Paragraph 7, page 7) 5 marks...

    woooooooooot???????
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    (Original post by abuelzouz)
    Outline the process by which ‘Atrogin1’ and ‘muRF1’ are expressed asubiquitin ligases. (Paragraph 7, page 7) 5 marks...

    woooooooooot???????
    It's about protein synthesis and transcription factors.
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    (Original post by abuelzouz)
    Outline the process by which ‘Atrogin1’ and ‘muRF1’ are expressed asubiquitin ligases. (Paragraph 7, page 7) 5 marks...

    woooooooooot???????

    Very simple... think about it logically...

    the Atrogin1 and muRF1 genes are genes that code for the ubiquitin ligases....
    ubiquitin ligases are enzymes i.e. PROTEINS

    thus the genes are expressed through protein synthesis i.e. transcription and translation into the protein

    you could also mention transcription factors like FOXO switching these genes on
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    Do we need to know anterior and posterior cruciate ligament ?
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    (Original post by yagmurainie)
    Do we need to know anterior and posterior cruciate ligament ?
    Not that I'm aware.

    All we need to know is that ligaments attach bones to bones while still allowing smooth movement of the joints.

    Oh, and you should know the structure of synovial joints, in particular the knee.
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    (Original post by imaam)
    Can anyone outline the spirometer practical for me please..?
    I don't know if someone already has but anyway:
    1) spirometer has an oxygen-filled chamber with a moveable lid
    2) a person breathes through a tube which causes the lid to raise up and down
    3) when the person breathes in the lid goes down and when they breathe out the lid goes up which causes the pen on the rotating drum to produce a spirometer trade (kymograph)
    4) soda lime in the tube the person breathes into absorbs carbon dioxide s

    The spirometer can be used to measure breathing rate and volume
    we learnt the wet spirometer where oxygen is breathed in and out on an air tank floating on water

    the chart recorder (kymograph) rotates at a set speed. The pen on the spirometer leaves a trace which can be used to take measurement of breathing.
    air tank is filled with medical grade oxygen
    water tank allows movement of the air tank link, while sealing in the enclosed air
    the breathing tubes are so the person using the spirometer can breath in and out via the mouth piece and the returning air goes through the canister
    The spirometer is calibrated before use by adding a known volume of oxygen to the air take using the scale on the air tank lid. A mark is made on the chart recorder paper before and after adding the oxygen.
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    (Original post by AGM)
    Not that I'm aware.

    All we need to know is that ligaments attach bones to bones while still allowing smooth movement of the joints.

    Oh, and you should know the structure of synovial joints, in particular the knee.
    I thought that we did because the spec uses the cruciate ligament as an example?
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    (Original post by CHemgeo)
    I thought that we did because the spec uses the cruciate ligament as an example?
    Again, I really do think you need to know much about it. The main thing is being able to identify the differences between ligaments and tendons.
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    (Original post by AGM)
    Not that I'm aware.

    All we need to know is that ligaments attach bones to bones while still allowing smooth movement of the joints.

    Oh, and you should know the structure of synovial joints, in particular the knee.
    Relieved, thanks
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    (Original post by CHemgeo)
    I don't know if someone already has but anyway:
    1) spirometer has an oxygen-filled chamber with a moveable lid
    2) a person breathes through a tube which causes the lid to raise up and down
    3) when the person breathes in the lid goes down and when they breathe out the lid goes up which causes the pen on the rotating drum to produce a spirometer trade (kymograph)
    4) soda lime in the tube the person breathes into absorbs carbon dioxide s

    The spirometer can be used to measure breathing rate and volume
    we learnt the wet spirometer where oxygen is breathed in and out on an air tank floating on water

    the chart recorder (kymograph) rotates at a set speed. The pen on the spirometer leaves a trace which can be used to take measurement of breathing.
    air tank is filled with medical grade oxygen
    water tank allows movement of the air tank link, while sealing in the enclosed air
    the breathing tubes are so the person using the spirometer can breath in and out via the mouth piece and the returning air goes through the canister
    The spirometer is calibrated before use by adding a known volume of oxygen to the air take using the scale on the air tank lid. A mark is made on the chart recorder paper before and after adding the oxygen.
    Thanks a lot!!
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    (Original post by BustyLaRouge)
    "Gym in a bottle discusses the solutions of three different research groups to solve the problem of muscular atrophy........
    thanks it sounds great
    this exam is going to be hard
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    and what about arthritis? is it just the inflammation at articular cartillage or do we need to know it in more detail?
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    (Original post by yagmurainie)
    and what about arthritis? is it just the inflammation at articular cartillage or do we need to know it in more detail?
    I don't think we need to know much about it. Just that it's caused by worn out and damaged cartilage.

    I guess you might have to compare the benefits of the non-invasive arthroscopy and a full on knee replacement... but as far as I'm aware we don't need to know much about arthritis.
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    i'm losing the will to look at any more biology, it's so impossibly dull.
 
 
 
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