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    (Original post by AGM)
    I don't think we need to know much about it. Just that it's caused by worn out and damaged cartilage.

    I guess you might have to compare the benefits of the non-invasive arthroscopy and a full on knee replacement... but as far as I'm aware we don't need to know much about arthritis.
    What do we write if we were asked to compare?
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    (Original post by guichiguichi)
    i'm losing the will to look at any more biology, it's so impossibly dull.
    two more days then you are free
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    (Original post by CHemgeo)
    two more days then you are free
    I think two days are too long for everyone!
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    (Original post by CHemgeo)
    I don't know if someone already has but anyway:
    1) spirometer has an oxygen-filled chamber with a moveable lid
    2) a person breathes through a tube which causes the lid to raise up and down
    3) when the person breathes in the lid goes down and when they breathe out the lid goes up which causes the pen on the rotating drum to produce a spirometer trade (kymograph)
    4) soda lime in the tube the person breathes into absorbs carbon dioxide s

    The spirometer can be used to measure breathing rate and volume
    we learnt the wet spirometer where oxygen is breathed in and out on an air tank floating on water

    the chart recorder (kymograph) rotates at a set speed. The pen on the spirometer leaves a trace which can be used to take measurement of breathing.
    air tank is filled with medical grade oxygen
    water tank allows movement of the air tank link, while sealing in the enclosed air
    the breathing tubes are so the person using the spirometer can breath in and out via the mouth piece and the returning air goes through the canister
    The spirometer is calibrated before use by adding a known volume of oxygen to the air take using the scale on the air tank lid. A mark is made on the chart recorder paper before and after adding the oxygen.
    To elaborate on this:

    Spirometer is use to caluclate breathing rate and tidal volume. This is used to caluclate ventilation rate.

    1) measure breathing rate while at rest for 1 minute
    2) measure breathing rate while doing exercise (e.g. on a treadmill) for another 2 minute
    3) measure breathing rate while at rest after exercise, in the recovery period for 1 minute.
    4) ???
    5) use result to compare the effect of exercise on ventilation rate
    6) profit??


    3)
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    Quick question guys.
    Which question will you do first?

    the 30 mark question 7 on the article or the other 6 questions?

    I thought it'd be wise to get the 30 mark out of the way (storm through it, as you already know whats gonna come up) before attempting to do the 6 questions where you need to think before answering.

    What will you guys do??
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    Can you guys go through the two ethical stand with me please? I've never did ethics before :/

    1) What is the difference between relativist and activists, how do they differ in terms of what their opinions?


    2) Discuss the use of animals in drug testing (5) (if it says discuss do you give both advantages and disadvantages?)

    3) Use your own knowledge to describe how hypothalamus controls blood sugar level (5)

    4) Discuss the risks and benefits of using GMO. (6)
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    (Original post by tophothari)
    Can you guys go through the two ethical stand with me please? I've never did ethics before :/

    1) What is the difference between relativist and activists, how do they differ in terms of what their opinions?


    2) Discuss the use of animals in drug testing (5) (if it says discuss do you give both advantages and disadvantages?)

    3) Use your own knowledge to describe how hypothalamus controls blood sugar level (5)

    4) Discuss the risks and benefits of using GMO. (6)
    Do you mean relativist and absolutists?
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    (Original post by tophothari)
    Quick question guys.
    Which question will you do first?

    the 30 mark question 7 on the article or the other 6 questions?

    I thought it'd be wise to get the 30 mark out of the way (storm through it, as you already know whats gonna come up) before attempting to do the 6 questions where you need to think before answering.

    What will you guys do??
    I'm gonna go from start to finish As papers should be done :P Plus, the fact that it's synoptic might mean something earlier could trigger an idea for later? And that the 6 questions are worth more than the 7th and it might give me more time to remember the pre-release :P
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    (Original post by Godot123)
    Do you mean relativist and absolutists?
    Yes, sorry.
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    Ok can someone confirm if this is right:

    In order for transcription to happen, both RNA polymerase and transcription factors in their active forms, have to bind adjacent to the start of the needed gene

    normally there are proteins called repressor moleculers which either bind to the DNA region preventing the transcription initiation complex forming, or bind to the transcription factors

    also the transcription factors themselves may be inactive preventing transcription. but when a hormone (eg steroid hormone) binds to the hormone receptor, it forms an active transcription factor which binds and starts transcription?
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    (Original post by Parthenon93)
    What do we write if we were asked to compare?
    Well key hole surgery is:

    - Non-invasive
    - Therefore there is; reduced risk of infection, reduced cost and quicker recovery time.
    - Also because operations are quicker more operations as a whole can be taken out.
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    Well relativists are basically guys sitting on the fence, if we use PED's as an example their viewpoint would be that it is acceptable on some grounds, and unacceptable on others. They may feel it is ok to use PED in order to level out the playing field in a sense. if runner X is so much slower than the others than he cannot even compete, then relativists may think it is fine. Howevever relativists may say its not ok if its used to such a level that non-PED users cannot compete with PED users.

    An absolutists view is firm, they can be either for or against but they stick to one.

    For example an absolutist against PEDs would say that on no ground is using PEDs acceptable, and it is cheating whichever way you look at it. They would say that all of the competitors should not be allowed to use any kind of PEDs. Also they may want athletes who use PEDs suspended from the competition.
    An absolutists for PEDs would essentially say the opposite and would believe that using PEDs is acceptable.
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    (Original post by AGM)
    Well key hole surgery is:

    - Non-invasive
    - Therefore there is; reduced risk of infection, reduced cost and quicker recovery time.
    - Also because operations are quicker more operations as a whole can be taken out.
    also less bleeding. and less scarring so better aesthetics brah
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    (Original post by bertstare)
    also less bleeding. and less scarring so better aesthetics brah
    Indeed, and that's cost saved as well as like anaesthetic is used!
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    do we need to learn conditioned reflexes??
    i cannot find this in the text book.
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    I have a question! So, am i right in saying that in order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted, there needs to be neurotransmitters released from the presynaptic membrane into the synaptic cleft (and then reabsorbed into the presynaptic cleft or broken down after transmission)?

    Well, in light stimulation, the CGP revision guide says that "Na+ ions diffuse into the rod cell -> inside slightly negative (depolarisation) -> triggers release of neurotransmitters -> neurotransmitters inhibit the bipolar neurone (ie it can't fire an action potential)." Surely the release of a neurotransmitter would mean an action potential could be fired?

    Could someone explain this to me please : )

    Also, out of Na+ and K+, is Na+ the more negative one?
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    (Original post by tophothari)
    Quick question guys.
    Which question will you do first?

    the 30 mark question 7 on the article or the other 6 questions?

    I thought it'd be wise to get the 30 mark out of the way (storm through it, as you already know whats gonna come up) before attempting to do the 6 questions where you need to think before answering.

    What will you guys do??

    How???? show me!
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    what are the benefits and risks of using GMO'S?
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    (Original post by voices1)
    what are the benefits and risks of using GMO'S?
    Benefits:
    - higher yield, plants more nutrious
    - enzymes produced in large quantity, and production method is cheaper, so high profit
    - human protein used (as template) in GMO rather than conventional animal protein, therefore its safer and more effective in treatments
    - make them weed resistance, so cost reduces, crop is less expensive, so used in LEDCs

    Risks:
    - transmission of weed-resistance gene during interbreed, chance of producing superweed or superbug increases
    - modifying genetic material of organisms purely for human benefite is immoral


    thats all i can think of sorry.

    Edit: thought of more benefits: using animal and plant mean, conventional method of farming can be used, which is cheaper.
    Risk - people concerned about possible consequences, unforeseen impacts of GMO in future
    - people think its unnatural to modify animal genes
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    (Original post by TheDustyKid)
    I have a question! So, am i right in saying that in order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted, there needs to be neurotransmitters released from the presynaptic membrane into the synaptic cleft (and then reabsorbed into the presynaptic cleft or broken down after transmission)?

    Well, in light stimulation, the CGP revision guide says that "Na+ ions diffuse into the rod cell -> inside slightly negative (depolarisation) -> triggers release of neurotransmitters -> neurotransmitters inhibit the bipolar neurone (ie it can't fire an action potential)." Surely the release of a neurotransmitter would mean an action potential could be fired?

    Could someone explain this to me please : )

    Also, out of Na+ and K+, is Na+ the more negative one?
    its the opposite in a rod cell. its an inhibitory synapse so instead of NA+ gates opening, Cl- gates open causing influx of Cl- which causes hyperpolarisation (instead of depolarisation) so an action potential wont fire

    although it doesnt go into detail about that for the rod cell, it just says it inhibits it. but thats how an inhibitory synapse works
 
 
 
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