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    (Original post by pingu09)
    Page 4

    Miesenbock approach;
    He had to first insert a gene which made P2X2, which then binded to ATP, caused firing of neurones. Made them light-sensitive by placing form of ATP only activated by exposure to light of specific wavelength.

    Para 4- it states the limitation

    ***

    I don't understand exactly what the limitation to his approach is?

    Also, is this related to genetical engineering (AS stuff)....

    the limitation is basically that his work can't be applied to more complex organisms. he used fruit flies and injected the light-sensitive ATP straight into their brains as they have a different head structure to humans, i think somewhere else in the text it mentions they have clear heads or something. but you can't inject the light-sensitive ATP into a human brain- it just isn't possible.
    further research though (the last paragraph on pg4 and start of pg5) says that this limitation is in the process of being solved through genetic engineering, they can now use this to turn certain neurones on and off.
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    (Original post by abcdemilyxx)
    but you can't inject the light-sensitive ATP into a human brain- it just isn't possible.
    oh i beg to differ
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    (Original post by JordanCarroll)
    oh i beg to differ

    LOL! okay, it's not ethically possible, better?
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    (Original post by abcdemilyxx)
    LOL! okay, it's not ethically possible, better?
    I'm sure there is some ethical framework that would allow people to have ATP injected into their brains :p:
    but for the sake of all things sane,

    that's better
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    (Original post by JordanCarroll)
    I'm sure there is some ethical framework that would allow people to have ATP injected into their brains :p:
    but for the sake of all things sane,

    that's better

    lol well now you're just being deliberately awkward ):
    good!
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    Isit just me or does it look like you only need to read the article and not do any research on it.........as thats what it looks like from the specimen paper?
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    (Original post by fizzybubble)
    My teachers told us to research. However I have no idea what to research and have not attempted to do so yet...unless this thread counts as research
    If you answer the questions I put up then you should be alright for research and understanding the article. There are two sets of questions on this thread and a third set to come which I'll post up a bit closer to the exam.
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    what's the disadvantages of keyhole surgery
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    (Original post by koop)
    what's the disadvantages of keyhole surgery
    It can become inflammed and can get infected, although this is less likely than standard surgery.

    I imagine it's quite expensive to perform and to have.

    Possibly less accurate at solving the problems/than standard surgery as you have to guide the tools with an endoscopy camera attached to a fibre optic cable, whereas with standard surgery you get a wider view and can look at other problems in the area, which keyhole surgery can't easily do.

    Errr.... not really sure. Google it.
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    Keyhole could probably only fix minor problems, though this is probably a limitation.

    Surgery Through a Keyhole

    Technical advances now make it possible to perform surgery with smaller incisions and less tissue disruption than occurs with traditional surgery. To perform this surgery, surgeons insert tiny lights, video cameras, and surgical instruments through keyhole-sized incisions. The surgeons can then perform procedures using the images transmitted to video monitors as guides for manipulating the surgical instruments. This kind of surgery is called laparoscopic surgery when performed in the abdomen, arthroscopic surgery when performed in joints, and thoracoscopic surgery when performed in the chest.

    Because it causes less tissue damage than traditional surgery, keyhole surgery has several advantages, including the following:

    *
    A briefer hospital stay (in most cases)
    *
    Often, less pain after the operation
    *
    Earlier return to work
    *
    A tendency toward smaller scars

    However, the difficulties of keyhole surgery often are underestimated by people undergoing the surgery and sometimes by surgeons. Because surgeons are using a video monitor, they are seeing only a two-dimensional view of the site on which they are operating. Also, the surgical instruments used have long handles and are controlled from outside of the person's body, so the surgeon may find that using them feels less natural than using traditional surgical instruments. For these reasons, keyhole surgery has potential disadvantages:

    *
    Keyhole surgery often takes longer than traditional surgery.
    *
    More importantly, especially when a procedure is new, errors are more likely to occur than with traditional approaches because of the complexity of keyhole surgery.

    People also should know that although keyhole surgery may cause less pain than traditional surgery, pain still occurs, often more than anticipated.

    Because keyhole surgery is technically difficult, people should do the following:

    *
    Choose a highly experienced surgeon
    *
    Establish that surgery is necessary
    *
    Ask the surgeon how pain will be treated
    Source: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec25/ch301/ch301a.html
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    cheers
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    hey guys
    can any one tell me what the article means by, noradrenaline serves as an 'alarm system'

    and also is noradrenaline good or bad?
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    my teacher dun allow us to get his green book. i personally got a feeling that new spec question will be coming out from there( question from student`s green book) can any1 with the answer share with us?
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    (Original post by rashahamed)
    can any one tell me what the article means by, noradrenaline serves as an 'alarm system'

    and also is noradrenaline good or bad?
    Noradrenaline is found in synapses which are part of reflex pathways involved in 'fight or flight' responses. So for example, if you hear a sudden loud noise behind you, the responses will be controlled by noradrenergic synapses.
    It isn't as simple as noradrenaline being 'good or bad'. It is responsible for transmitting impulses which cause the unpleasant effects of excess stress, but it also helps to reduce stress by the down-regulation of adrenoreceptors.
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    Guys....will anything from AS or Unit 4 come up in this paper ? I mean in any other question?.(not the article question , it wil have some stuff from AS )
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    (Original post by koop)
    Isit just me or does it look like you only need to read the article and not do any research on it.........as thats what it looks like from the specimen paper?
    It does appear that way to me... I think you just need to know which bits are relevant to bits on the syllabus, and maybe general definitions of things like vagal nerve stimulation so you know what it's talking about...

    I mean, good for everyone getting stressed out and learning PhD level answers to complicated questions, but I think this is just a way to bring in information from AS and A2 and apply it to real life. :yep:

    Good luck!
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    (Original post by Adelice)
    It does appear that way to me... I think you just need to know which bits are relevant to bits on the syllabus, and maybe general definitions of things like vagal nerve stimulation so you know what it's talking about...

    I mean, good for everyone getting stressed out and learning PhD level answers to complicated questions, but I think this is just a way to bring in information from AS and A2 and apply it to real life. :yep:

    Good luck!
    It helps if you know the article really well as it's a really long article and soin order to pinpoint the bits of information that you need to answer the questions with, you have to know the article well.
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    (Original post by skotch)
    It helps if you know the article really well as it's a really long article and soin order to pinpoint the bits of information that you need to answer the questions with, you have to know the article well.
    Good point. Don't want to be flicking through 12 pages to find a sentence :woo: .Correct me if I'm wrong, but I don't think they expect us to know extensive extra knowledge on the subjects brought up in the article, unless they are on the syllabus or actually written in the article (comprehension ftw!).
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    How is the experiment with the rat’s barrel cortex an example of a conditioned reflex?

    i dont understand the question!!!

    can anyone help?
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    (Original post by rashahamed)
    How is the experiment with the rat’s barrel cortex an example of a conditioned reflex?

    i dont understand the question!!!

    can anyone help?
    Why don't you look up conditioning and try and work it out. So far all you have done on this thread is ask a question every time you get slightly stuck. Work it out for yourself.
 
 
 
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