Hey there! Sign in to join this conversationNew here? Join for free
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ghogho)
    pple i have a stupid qu
    wat is the pre release qu thing ????????????
    Pre release is the article


    This was posted from The Student Room's iPhone/iPad
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Hi, does any body have the january 2012 paper in pdf format. I keep trying to download it off that media fire link thats been sent about and it doesn't want to work! Would be really greatful if anyone could post me a link!
    Thanks
    Amy
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    lol i know that
    i just didnt get why energy was needed to bring back the myosin head.
    Dw you wont need to know why, just that it does


    This was posted from The Student Room's iPhone/iPad
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Hi I'm really new to this so i dont know if im doing this right but im looking for the january 2012 paper but not off of media fire..does anyone have it and wouldnt mind sending me the link? id be really grateful!!!
    thanks
    amy
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    okay i found a qu in the old pastpapers it says
    explain the role of ATP during muscle activity [3 marks]

    so can some give write the three points that we must mention!! i just know two
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    why cant a neurone fire an impulse during hyperpolarisation and repolarisation ..?!
    cuz the nerve fibre cnt accept a stimuli except at the resting stage this to make sure that the impulse move only in one direction
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by pandoraclaire)
    what do you mean? like what questions they could ask us or what?
    well dnt knw some pple r talking about pre released qu and i dnt knw wat is this
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ghogho)
    well dnt knw some pple r talking about pre released qu and i dnt knw wat is this
    do you have the pre release? the last question of the paper will be 30 marks and will have questions relating back to the pre release article so we have to guess on what they could ask, i have a document of the ideas people have come up with so far if that would help?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by 19941994)
    Pre release is the article


    This was posted from The Student Room's iPhone/iPad
    aha
    okay feel stupid cuz i asked such a qu :blushing::blushing::blushing:
    thx
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ghogho)
    okay i found a qu in the old pastpapers it says
    explain the role of ATP during muscle activity [3 marks]

    so can some give write the three points that we must mention!! i just know two
    ATP is hydrolysed to provide energy for the bending of myosin head
    ATP is required to attach to myosin head to detach it form the myosin binding site on actin.
    ATP is required to transport Ca2+ ions back into sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by pandoraclaire)
    do you have the pre release? the last question of the paper will be 30 marks and will have questions relating back to the pre release article so we have to guess on what they could ask, i have a document of the ideas people have come up with so far if that would help?
    thx alot i just didnt know that they refair to the article as pre released qu

    i also have some qu and i posted them here

    thx again
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ghogho)
    cuz the nerve fibre cnt accept a stimuli except at the resting stage this to make sure that the impulse move only in one direction
    lol i love you for that ! haha
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    ATP is hydrolysed to provide energy for the bending of myosin head
    ATP is required to attach to myosin head to detach it form the myosin binding site on actin.
    ATP is required to transport Ca2+ ions back into sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    Many many many thx iesians
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    lol i love you for that ! haha
    hahahahahahah
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    i am finding it so difficult to remember everything anyone got any tips ? topic 8 is so hard !
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    lol i love you for that ! haha
    dont really know how to get the document on here but this is them, there might be some repeats, ive just copied down all the ideas people have come up with
    Sorry its so long but thats all the questions so i think it coveres most of the things that could come up

    On the last line of paragraph 52 on page 8 of the Scientific Article, there is a statement about the number of women dying because of HIV/AIDS.
    Explain how the disease caused by HIV has a sequence of symptoms that may result in death.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement : “Obesity is defined as a surplus of body fat which is detrimental to health. This fat, or white adipose tissue (WAT), is located underneath the skin and around the internal organs and stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides.”
    Describe the structure of a typical fat molecule. Support your answer with a diagram of the fat molecule.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement: “WAT located around the abdomen (giving rise to the ‘apple’ body shape) is considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs as it is strongly correlated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease and certain types of cancer.”
    - Explain what is meant by a correlation
    - Explain the difference between a correlation and causal relationship
    - Explain why WAT located around the abdomens is dangerous for the heart
    - Describe and explain what may lead to obesity

    On paragraph 8 of page 1 of the Scientific Article, there’s this statement: “Neuroscientists at Brigham Young University in Utah examined subconscious feelings about body image through fMRI analysis of the brains of healthy men and women who were assessed psychometrically as being confident with their bodies.”
    - Describe and explain how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.
    There’s another imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
    - Describe and explain how Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.

    Could I run some of my ideas of what may come up by any of you to see if you agree? These ones are the ones that are a little bit more hidden in the article.
    Explain how cortisol could have a role in regulating the Inflammatory response (paragraph 18, p.4)
    -Stem cells (paragraph 41, p.7)
    -Animal research (mention of rodents and primates in paragraph 19, p.4)
    -Saturated and unsaturated fats (leading on from mention of triglycerides in paragraph 3, p.2)

    -What causes brown adipose tissue to be activated by the cold? (Para 1)
    -What causes obesity? (Para 2)
    -Correlation vs. Causation. (Para 3)
    -WAT is strongly correlated but what other factors cause heart disease and cancers? (Para 3)
    -What part of the brain is linked with eating disorders? (Para 6-8)
    -How is a fMRI carried out and what does it show? (Para 8)
    -How are the PEC and amygdala “significantly activated”? (Para 12)
    -What effect does the media have on visual perception? (Para 15)
    -Exposure to high levels of cortisol can mean higher blood pressure, how does this affect formation of atheromas/atherosclerosis occurring? (Para 18)
    -Suggest reasons why some people believe animal testing is wrong (Para 19)
    -BAT contains lipids, draw the structure of the fatty acid triglyceride (Para 28)
    -Explain why long distance runners would have more brown fat cells (Para 28)
    -Compare the Nervous system with the hormonal system within humans (Para 29)

    -Explain how the sympathetic nervous system responds to cold temperatures (homeostasis) (Para 29)
    -Explain the clinical trial steps leading up to drugs being available for administration to make sure there are no severe side effects(Para 36)
    -Explain how a gene is expressed (Para 40)
    -suggest ethical reasons against the use of embryonic stem cells (Para 41)
    -Explain how stem cells differentiate to become specialised cells (Para 41)
    -How are proteins synthesised? (Para 45)
    -Describe how individuals are more susceptible to diseases due to genetics? (Para 46)
    -Describe how HIV/AID5 develops when heterosexually contracted (Para 52)
    -Possible question on media bias...

    1. What do you understand by behavioural epigenetic influences?
    2. What are regulatory regions of DNA?
    3. Can early or prolonged body dissatisfaction leave epigenetic marks on DNA?

    1. What criteria might have been used to assess obesity, to arrive at the estimate that almost two thirds of adults and one third of children are obese?
    2. Obesity has been linked with heart disease. Suggest a sequence of events that could causally link obesity with and increased risk of heart disease.
    3. What is meant by the prevalence of a disease or condition? P6
    4. Why is mortality for anorexia expressed as a rate,( in %, or deaths per 100,000), rather than in numbers of deaths? P6
    5. Explain how fMRI was able to show that activity increases in the prefrontal cortex in subjects engaged in self-reflection. P9
    6. The pre-frontal cortex is part of the frontal lobe of the brain. Describe some of the functions of this part of the brain, and compare it with the function of the
    medulla.
    7. What evidence is given in the text that what is perceived at the ideal body shape for a woman is a cultural construct, rather than from a genetically determined
    way of identifying a healthy potential mate?
    8. Describe the inflammatory process P18
    9. Suggest what cells may be reduced in number when cortisol produces ‘impaired immunity
    10. Explain how the ‘contrast effect’ might occur in the retina of the eye, with the stimulus of ‘luminescence’ p25
    11. Describe the processes taking place in mitochondria, when ATP production is not uncoupled from the respiration process p28
    12. Using your knowledge of chemiosmosis suggest a mechanism by which an uncoupling protein might work.
    13. BAT is activated by both the SNS and thyroid hormones. Compare and contrast the way in which these two methods of communication operate.
    14. Strictly speaking it is absurd to suggest that a baby has a large body surface, as compared with an adult (p30). Express this relationship in an appropriate way to
    explain why a baby would have a higher rate of heat loss than an adult.
    15. What is meant by a metabolically active tissue p31, and give examples of tissue that might be described as such.
    16. Describe the mechanisms by which glucose may be taken up by cells.
    17. Describe the responses by the body that might help to prevent death by uncontrollable heat production as described in para 37
    18. It is reported no studies for fucoxanthin have been carried out on humans (p38). outline the protocols that would be carried out before it can be said that thetreatment is effective.
    19. Outline the role of transcription factors which lead to a higher expression of PRDM16 in BAT, compared to WAT p40
    20. Describe the procedures that might be used to genetically modify the mice to produce high levels of PRDM16.
    21. Give the characteristics of stem cells that can differentiate into BAT and muscle tissue.

    discuss the effect of media, body image and dieting on your body.
    describe the effect/function/structure of BAT on body weight.
    where is BAT stored?
    describe the effect( advantages & disadvantages) of blockbuster weight pills on your health e g side effects.
    what are anti-obesity therapies? advantages & disadvantages of using them.
    describe the effect of obesity on body health.
    what is the difference between obese and obesity.
    what are the treatments provided by the NHS to treat obesity.
    ways to reduce obesity.
    how has obesity increased over the years.
    describe ways to measure obesity.
    why is obesity considered “ detrimental to health”
    describe the effect/function/structure/place where WAT is stored.
    what are triglycerides? structure/effect/function/place in the body it is found.
    why is apple body shape considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs.
    symptoms of type 2 diabetes/heart disease/cancer

    Describe how a programme of aerobic training can reduce the body fat and have an improvement on transportation of oxygen to the muscles?

    1.Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by cold temperatures. Could this help us with weight loss?
    2. Obesity is on the increase in the UK because of excess white adipose tissue (WAT). This can lead to a number of health risks.
    3. Body dissatisfaction had been linked to eating disorders.
    4. fMRI has been used to study the brain response to media images of thin and fat people.
    5. When we are self-reflective, the activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is increased.
    6. Brains of women respond to both images and the printed word, but men do not respond the same way.
    7. In females with eating disorders mPFC and amygdala (brain area associated with emotional responses) activated.
    8. mPFC responsible for gender differences in processing words and images, and susceptibility to eating disorders.
    9. Restricted calorie diets (and increased stress) lead to more cortisol (adrenal gland hormone - its primary functions are to increase blood sugar; suppress
    the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism) release in females, causing higher levels of CHD, diabetes and cancer.
    10. Stress leads to over-compensation of calorie rich foods (in rodent studies)
    11. BAT - these cells have lipid in the form of droplets, not in one large (as in other fat cells)
    12. BAT has many mitochondria, and lots of UCP-l (uncoupling protein that disrupts respiration at the electron transport system level, and so prevents the
    production of ATP, so energy is lost as heat instead of being stored.
    13. BAT cells are activated the SNS and thyroid hormones.
    14. The SNS is also activated by exposure to cold temperatures and ingestion of high caloric food.

    15. So BAT regulates Core Body Temperature and body weight by increasing energy expenditure.
    16. BAT is found in most small mammals, and newborns of larger animals. It was not thought to be present in adults of these animals.
    17. Babies have a large surface area to volume ratio so lose hear more easily - they are also unable to shiver.
    18. Lumberjacks have been found to retain BAT deposits in their neck region - the amount of BAT present relates to the length of time in cold conditions.
    19. BAT has also now been found in adults (neck region), with lean people having more BAT present in - so does it help against obesity?
    20. How can we stimulate BAT in us to help us lose weight - would it help if we were kept in cold conditions?
    21. BAT can be stimulated by high levels of thyroid hormones and drugs, but there are unpleasant side-effects.
    22. How can we increase the amount of BAT in us?
    23. A protein called PRDM 16 makes WAT precursor cells become BAT cells instead of WAT cells.
    24. Could PRDM 16 be used to transform stem cells into BAT cells, which can be transplanted to us?
    25. Diet affects gene expression.
    26. Disturbed expression of dopaminergenic genes has been identified in eating disorders.

    What is a tissue?
    Process of drug testing/making of drugs?
    What is the structure of a tryglyceride? Draw its structure
    What reaction is involved in the making of tryglycerides?
    Difference between saturated and unsaturated bonds?
    Which is more healthy? Saturated or unsaturated? Why?
    Draw and explain the structure of a phospholipid
    What are HDLs/LDLs and what are their functions?
    What is cholesterol?
    What is atherosclerosis?
    What did the landmark study in FUI show?
    What impact does an increase in cortisol levels have?
    What have been possible methods for losing weight?
    How are the media having an affect on different age groups of females?
    Outline the uses of fMRI
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by pandoraclaire)
    dont really know how to get the document on here but this is them, there might be some repeats, ive just copied down all the ideas people have come up with
    Sorry its so long but thats all the questions so i think it coveres most of the things that could come up

    On the last line of paragraph 52 on page 8 of the Scientific Article, there is a statement about the number of women dying because of HIV/AIDS.
    Explain how the disease caused by HIV has a sequence of symptoms that may result in death.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement : “Obesity is defined as a surplus of body fat which is detrimental to health. This fat, or white adipose tissue (WAT), is located underneath the skin and around the internal organs and stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides.”
    Describe the structure of a typical fat molecule. Support your answer with a diagram of the fat molecule.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement: “WAT located around the abdomen (giving rise to the ‘apple’ body shape) is considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs as it is strongly correlated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease and certain types of cancer.”
    - Explain what is meant by a correlation
    - Explain the difference between a correlation and causal relationship
    - Explain why WAT located around the abdomens is dangerous for the heart
    - Describe and explain what may lead to obesity

    On paragraph 8 of page 1 of the Scientific Article, there’s this statement: “Neuroscientists at Brigham Young University in Utah examined subconscious feelings about body image through fMRI analysis of the brains of healthy men and women who were assessed psychometrically as being confident with their bodies.”
    - Describe and explain how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.
    There’s another imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
    - Describe and explain how Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.

    Could I run some of my ideas of what may come up by any of you to see if you agree? These ones are the ones that are a little bit more hidden in the article.
    Explain how cortisol could have a role in regulating the Inflammatory response (paragraph 18, p.4)
    -Stem cells (paragraph 41, p.7)
    -Animal research (mention of rodents and primates in paragraph 19, p.4)
    -Saturated and unsaturated fats (leading on from mention of triglycerides in paragraph 3, p.2)

    -What causes brown adipose tissue to be activated by the cold? (Para 1)
    -What causes obesity? (Para 2)
    -Correlation vs. Causation. (Para 3)
    -WAT is strongly correlated but what other factors cause heart disease and cancers? (Para 3)
    -What part of the brain is linked with eating disorders? (Para 6-8)
    -How is a fMRI carried out and what does it show? (Para 8)
    -How are the PEC and amygdala “significantly activated”? (Para 12)
    -What effect does the media have on visual perception? (Para 15)
    -Exposure to high levels of cortisol can mean higher blood pressure, how does this affect formation of atheromas/atherosclerosis occurring? (Para 18)
    -Suggest reasons why some people believe animal testing is wrong (Para 19)
    -BAT contains lipids, draw the structure of the fatty acid triglyceride (Para 28)
    -Explain why long distance runners would have more brown fat cells (Para 28)
    -Compare the Nervous system with the hormonal system within humans (Para 29)

    -Explain how the sympathetic nervous system responds to cold temperatures (homeostasis) (Para 29)
    -Explain the clinical trial steps leading up to drugs being available for administration to make sure there are no severe side effects(Para 36)
    -Explain how a gene is expressed (Para 40)
    -suggest ethical reasons against the use of embryonic stem cells (Para 41)
    -Explain how stem cells differentiate to become specialised cells (Para 41)
    -How are proteins synthesised? (Para 45)
    -Describe how individuals are more susceptible to diseases due to genetics? (Para 46)
    -Describe how HIV/AID5 develops when heterosexually contracted (Para 52)
    -Possible question on media bias...

    1. What do you understand by behavioural epigenetic influences?
    2. What are regulatory regions of DNA?
    3. Can early or prolonged body dissatisfaction leave epigenetic marks on DNA?

    1. What criteria might have been used to assess obesity, to arrive at the estimate that almost two thirds of adults and one third of children are obese?
    2. Obesity has been linked with heart disease. Suggest a sequence of events that could causally link obesity with and increased risk of heart disease.
    3. What is meant by the prevalence of a disease or condition? P6
    4. Why is mortality for anorexia expressed as a rate,( in %, or deaths per 100,000), rather than in numbers of deaths? P6
    5. Explain how fMRI was able to show that activity increases in the prefrontal cortex in subjects engaged in self-reflection. P9
    6. The pre-frontal cortex is part of the frontal lobe of the brain. Describe some of the functions of this part of the brain, and compare it with the function of the
    medulla.
    7. What evidence is given in the text that what is perceived at the ideal body shape for a woman is a cultural construct, rather than from a genetically determined
    way of identifying a healthy potential mate?
    8. Describe the inflammatory process P18
    9. Suggest what cells may be reduced in number when cortisol produces ‘impaired immunity
    10. Explain how the ‘contrast effect’ might occur in the retina of the eye, with the stimulus of ‘luminescence’ p25
    11. Describe the processes taking place in mitochondria, when ATP production is not uncoupled from the respiration process p28
    12. Using your knowledge of chemiosmosis suggest a mechanism by which an uncoupling protein might work.
    13. BAT is activated by both the SNS and thyroid hormones. Compare and contrast the way in which these two methods of communication operate.
    14. Strictly speaking it is absurd to suggest that a baby has a large body surface, as compared with an adult (p30). Express this relationship in an appropriate way to
    explain why a baby would have a higher rate of heat loss than an adult.
    15. What is meant by a metabolically active tissue p31, and give examples of tissue that might be described as such.
    16. Describe the mechanisms by which glucose may be taken up by cells.
    17. Describe the responses by the body that might help to prevent death by uncontrollable heat production as described in para 37
    18. It is reported no studies for fucoxanthin have been carried out on humans (p38). outline the protocols that would be carried out before it can be said that thetreatment is effective.
    19. Outline the role of transcription factors which lead to a higher expression of PRDM16 in BAT, compared to WAT p40
    20. Describe the procedures that might be used to genetically modify the mice to produce high levels of PRDM16.
    21. Give the characteristics of stem cells that can differentiate into BAT and muscle tissue.

    discuss the effect of media, body image and dieting on your body.
    describe the effect/function/structure of BAT on body weight.
    where is BAT stored?
    describe the effect( advantages & disadvantages) of blockbuster weight pills on your health e g side effects.
    what are anti-obesity therapies? advantages & disadvantages of using them.
    describe the effect of obesity on body health.
    what is the difference between obese and obesity.
    what are the treatments provided by the NHS to treat obesity.
    ways to reduce obesity.
    how has obesity increased over the years.
    describe ways to measure obesity.
    why is obesity considered “ detrimental to health”
    describe the effect/function/structure/place where WAT is stored.
    what are triglycerides? structure/effect/function/place in the body it is found.
    why is apple body shape considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs.
    symptoms of type 2 diabetes/heart disease/cancer

    Describe how a programme of aerobic training can reduce the body fat and have an improvement on transportation of oxygen to the muscles?

    1.Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by cold temperatures. Could this help us with weight loss?
    2. Obesity is on the increase in the UK because of excess white adipose tissue (WAT). This can lead to a number of health risks.
    3. Body dissatisfaction had been linked to eating disorders.
    4. fMRI has been used to study the brain response to media images of thin and fat people.
    5. When we are self-reflective, the activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is increased.
    6. Brains of women respond to both images and the printed word, but men do not respond the same way.
    7. In females with eating disorders mPFC and amygdala (brain area associated with emotional responses) activated.
    8. mPFC responsible for gender differences in processing words and images, and susceptibility to eating disorders.
    9. Restricted calorie diets (and increased stress) lead to more cortisol (adrenal gland hormone - its primary functions are to increase blood sugar; suppress
    the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism) release in females, causing higher levels of CHD, diabetes and cancer.
    10. Stress leads to over-compensation of calorie rich foods (in rodent studies)
    11. BAT - these cells have lipid in the form of droplets, not in one large (as in other fat cells)
    12. BAT has many mitochondria, and lots of UCP-l (uncoupling protein that disrupts respiration at the electron transport system level, and so prevents the
    production of ATP, so energy is lost as heat instead of being stored.
    13. BAT cells are activated the SNS and thyroid hormones.
    14. The SNS is also activated by exposure to cold temperatures and ingestion of high caloric food.

    15. So BAT regulates Core Body Temperature and body weight by increasing energy expenditure.
    16. BAT is found in most small mammals, and newborns of larger animals. It was not thought to be present in adults of these animals.
    17. Babies have a large surface area to volume ratio so lose hear more easily - they are also unable to shiver.
    18. Lumberjacks have been found to retain BAT deposits in their neck region - the amount of BAT present relates to the length of time in cold conditions.
    19. BAT has also now been found in adults (neck region), with lean people having more BAT present in - so does it help against obesity?
    20. How can we stimulate BAT in us to help us lose weight - would it help if we were kept in cold conditions?
    21. BAT can be stimulated by high levels of thyroid hormones and drugs, but there are unpleasant side-effects.
    22. How can we increase the amount of BAT in us?
    23. A protein called PRDM 16 makes WAT precursor cells become BAT cells instead of WAT cells.
    24. Could PRDM 16 be used to transform stem cells into BAT cells, which can be transplanted to us?
    25. Diet affects gene expression.
    26. Disturbed expression of dopaminergenic genes has been identified in eating disorders.

    What is a tissue?
    Process of drug testing/making of drugs?
    What is the structure of a tryglyceride? Draw its structure
    What reaction is involved in the making of tryglycerides?
    Difference between saturated and unsaturated bonds?
    Which is more healthy? Saturated or unsaturated? Why?
    Draw and explain the structure of a phospholipid
    What are HDLs/LDLs and what are their functions?
    What is cholesterol?
    What is atherosclerosis?
    What did the landmark study in FUI show?
    What impact does an increase in cortisol levels have?
    What have been possible methods for losing weight?
    How are the media having an affect on different age groups of females?
    Outline the uses of fMRI
    i neva asked for this lol.
    anyway thanks
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by iesians)
    lol i love you for that ! haha
    sorry about the massive thing, was posted in the wrong place XD could be helpful anyway though?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    aannyyonnneee?? january past paper 2012 pleasee????
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by pandoraclaire)
    dont really know how to get the document on here but this is them, there might be some repeats, ive just copied down all the ideas people have come up with
    Sorry its so long but thats all the questions so i think it coveres most of the things that could come up

    On the last line of paragraph 52 on page 8 of the Scientific Article, there is a statement about the number of women dying because of HIV/AIDS.
    Explain how the disease caused by HIV has a sequence of symptoms that may result in death.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement : “Obesity is defined as a surplus of body fat which is detrimental to health. This fat, or white adipose tissue (WAT), is located underneath the skin and around the internal organs and stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides.”
    Describe the structure of a typical fat molecule. Support your answer with a diagram of the fat molecule.

    On paragraph 3 of page 1 of the article, there’s a statement: “WAT located around the abdomen (giving rise to the ‘apple’ body shape) is considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs as it is strongly correlated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease and certain types of cancer.”
    - Explain what is meant by a correlation
    - Explain the difference between a correlation and causal relationship
    - Explain why WAT located around the abdomens is dangerous for the heart
    - Describe and explain what may lead to obesity

    On paragraph 8 of page 1 of the Scientific Article, there’s this statement: “Neuroscientists at Brigham Young University in Utah examined subconscious feelings about body image through fMRI analysis of the brains of healthy men and women who were assessed psychometrically as being confident with their bodies.”
    - Describe and explain how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.
    There’s another imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
    - Describe and explain how Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can be used to investigate brain structure and function.

    Could I run some of my ideas of what may come up by any of you to see if you agree? These ones are the ones that are a little bit more hidden in the article.
    Explain how cortisol could have a role in regulating the Inflammatory response (paragraph 18, p.4)
    -Stem cells (paragraph 41, p.7)
    -Animal research (mention of rodents and primates in paragraph 19, p.4)
    -Saturated and unsaturated fats (leading on from mention of triglycerides in paragraph 3, p.2)

    -What causes brown adipose tissue to be activated by the cold? (Para 1)
    -What causes obesity? (Para 2)
    -Correlation vs. Causation. (Para 3)
    -WAT is strongly correlated but what other factors cause heart disease and cancers? (Para 3)
    -What part of the brain is linked with eating disorders? (Para 6-8)
    -How is a fMRI carried out and what does it show? (Para 8)
    -How are the PEC and amygdala “significantly activated”? (Para 12)
    -What effect does the media have on visual perception? (Para 15)
    -Exposure to high levels of cortisol can mean higher blood pressure, how does this affect formation of atheromas/atherosclerosis occurring? (Para 18)
    -Suggest reasons why some people believe animal testing is wrong (Para 19)
    -BAT contains lipids, draw the structure of the fatty acid triglyceride (Para 28)
    -Explain why long distance runners would have more brown fat cells (Para 28)
    -Compare the Nervous system with the hormonal system within humans (Para 29)

    -Explain how the sympathetic nervous system responds to cold temperatures (homeostasis) (Para 29)
    -Explain the clinical trial steps leading up to drugs being available for administration to make sure there are no severe side effects(Para 36)
    -Explain how a gene is expressed (Para 40)
    -suggest ethical reasons against the use of embryonic stem cells (Para 41)
    -Explain how stem cells differentiate to become specialised cells (Para 41)
    -How are proteins synthesised? (Para 45)
    -Describe how individuals are more susceptible to diseases due to genetics? (Para 46)
    -Describe how HIV/AID5 develops when heterosexually contracted (Para 52)
    -Possible question on media bias...

    1. What do you understand by behavioural epigenetic influences?
    2. What are regulatory regions of DNA?
    3. Can early or prolonged body dissatisfaction leave epigenetic marks on DNA?

    1. What criteria might have been used to assess obesity, to arrive at the estimate that almost two thirds of adults and one third of children are obese?
    2. Obesity has been linked with heart disease. Suggest a sequence of events that could causally link obesity with and increased risk of heart disease.
    3. What is meant by the prevalence of a disease or condition? P6
    4. Why is mortality for anorexia expressed as a rate,( in %, or deaths per 100,000), rather than in numbers of deaths? P6
    5. Explain how fMRI was able to show that activity increases in the prefrontal cortex in subjects engaged in self-reflection. P9
    6. The pre-frontal cortex is part of the frontal lobe of the brain. Describe some of the functions of this part of the brain, and compare it with the function of the
    medulla.
    7. What evidence is given in the text that what is perceived at the ideal body shape for a woman is a cultural construct, rather than from a genetically determined
    way of identifying a healthy potential mate?
    8. Describe the inflammatory process P18
    9. Suggest what cells may be reduced in number when cortisol produces ‘impaired immunity
    10. Explain how the ‘contrast effect’ might occur in the retina of the eye, with the stimulus of ‘luminescence’ p25
    11. Describe the processes taking place in mitochondria, when ATP production is not uncoupled from the respiration process p28
    12. Using your knowledge of chemiosmosis suggest a mechanism by which an uncoupling protein might work.
    13. BAT is activated by both the SNS and thyroid hormones. Compare and contrast the way in which these two methods of communication operate.
    14. Strictly speaking it is absurd to suggest that a baby has a large body surface, as compared with an adult (p30). Express this relationship in an appropriate way to
    explain why a baby would have a higher rate of heat loss than an adult.
    15. What is meant by a metabolically active tissue p31, and give examples of tissue that might be described as such.
    16. Describe the mechanisms by which glucose may be taken up by cells.
    17. Describe the responses by the body that might help to prevent death by uncontrollable heat production as described in para 37
    18. It is reported no studies for fucoxanthin have been carried out on humans (p38). outline the protocols that would be carried out before it can be said that thetreatment is effective.
    19. Outline the role of transcription factors which lead to a higher expression of PRDM16 in BAT, compared to WAT p40
    20. Describe the procedures that might be used to genetically modify the mice to produce high levels of PRDM16.
    21. Give the characteristics of stem cells that can differentiate into BAT and muscle tissue.

    discuss the effect of media, body image and dieting on your body.
    describe the effect/function/structure of BAT on body weight.
    where is BAT stored?
    describe the effect( advantages & disadvantages) of blockbuster weight pills on your health e g side effects.
    what are anti-obesity therapies? advantages & disadvantages of using them.
    describe the effect of obesity on body health.
    what is the difference between obese and obesity.
    what are the treatments provided by the NHS to treat obesity.
    ways to reduce obesity.
    how has obesity increased over the years.
    describe ways to measure obesity.
    why is obesity considered “ detrimental to health”
    describe the effect/function/structure/place where WAT is stored.
    what are triglycerides? structure/effect/function/place in the body it is found.
    why is apple body shape considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs.
    symptoms of type 2 diabetes/heart disease/cancer

    Describe how a programme of aerobic training can reduce the body fat and have an improvement on transportation of oxygen to the muscles?

    1.Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by cold temperatures. Could this help us with weight loss?
    2. Obesity is on the increase in the UK because of excess white adipose tissue (WAT). This can lead to a number of health risks.
    3. Body dissatisfaction had been linked to eating disorders.
    4. fMRI has been used to study the brain response to media images of thin and fat people.
    5. When we are self-reflective, the activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is increased.
    6. Brains of women respond to both images and the printed word, but men do not respond the same way.
    7. In females with eating disorders mPFC and amygdala (brain area associated with emotional responses) activated.
    8. mPFC responsible for gender differences in processing words and images, and susceptibility to eating disorders.
    9. Restricted calorie diets (and increased stress) lead to more cortisol (adrenal gland hormone - its primary functions are to increase blood sugar; suppress
    the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism) release in females, causing higher levels of CHD, diabetes and cancer.
    10. Stress leads to over-compensation of calorie rich foods (in rodent studies)
    11. BAT - these cells have lipid in the form of droplets, not in one large (as in other fat cells)
    12. BAT has many mitochondria, and lots of UCP-l (uncoupling protein that disrupts respiration at the electron transport system level, and so prevents the
    production of ATP, so energy is lost as heat instead of being stored.
    13. BAT cells are activated the SNS and thyroid hormones.
    14. The SNS is also activated by exposure to cold temperatures and ingestion of high caloric food.

    15. So BAT regulates Core Body Temperature and body weight by increasing energy expenditure.
    16. BAT is found in most small mammals, and newborns of larger animals. It was not thought to be present in adults of these animals.
    17. Babies have a large surface area to volume ratio so lose hear more easily - they are also unable to shiver.
    18. Lumberjacks have been found to retain BAT deposits in their neck region - the amount of BAT present relates to the length of time in cold conditions.
    19. BAT has also now been found in adults (neck region), with lean people having more BAT present in - so does it help against obesity?
    20. How can we stimulate BAT in us to help us lose weight - would it help if we were kept in cold conditions?
    21. BAT can be stimulated by high levels of thyroid hormones and drugs, but there are unpleasant side-effects.
    22. How can we increase the amount of BAT in us?
    23. A protein called PRDM 16 makes WAT precursor cells become BAT cells instead of WAT cells.
    24. Could PRDM 16 be used to transform stem cells into BAT cells, which can be transplanted to us?
    25. Diet affects gene expression.
    26. Disturbed expression of dopaminergenic genes has been identified in eating disorders.

    What is a tissue?
    Process of drug testing/making of drugs?
    What is the structure of a tryglyceride? Draw its structure
    What reaction is involved in the making of tryglycerides?
    Difference between saturated and unsaturated bonds?
    Which is more healthy? Saturated or unsaturated? Why?
    Draw and explain the structure of a phospholipid
    What are HDLs/LDLs and what are their functions?
    What is cholesterol?
    What is atherosclerosis?
    What did the landmark study in FUI show?
    What impact does an increase in cortisol levels have?
    What have been possible methods for losing weight?
    How are the media having an affect on different age groups of females?
    Outline the uses of fMRI
    many many thaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaanks
 
 
 
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • Poll
    Has a teacher ever helped you cheat?
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

    Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

    Write a reply...
    Reply
    Hide
    Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.