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    (Original post by NNP)
    Where do these electrons come from?

    these electrons come from the hydrogen. When the hydrogen is carried to the electron transport chain, the hydrogen splits into a H+ and an electron. The electron pass along the electron carriers along the successively lower energy levels.

    Hope this helps

    Also the substrates in this case are the intermediate 3 carbon compunds that are formed in glycolysis.
    How are they the substrates though? and in what way do the intermediate compounds provide energy for the formation of ATP?

    and yeah you have helped thanks
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    (Original post by skotch)
    Ok... basically photoreceptors in plants are known as phytochromes. There are 5 different types and each is made up of a protein part and a non-protein part. We are interested in the non-protein part as this is the part that absorbs light.

    The non-protein component exists in two forms:
    - Phytochrome red (absorbs red light, 660nm) which is inactive
    - Phytochrome far red (absorbs far red light, 730nm) which is active

    Let's call phytochrome red 'Pr' and phytochrome far red 'Pfr'.

    Phytochromes control germination, as you should know - plants fail to germinate in the dark.

    Absorption of red light converts Pr to Pfr. Pfr is the active phytochrome so the plant can germinate when exposed to red light.

    Absorption of far red light converts Pfr to Pr. Pr is inactive, so the plant fails to germinate when exposed to far red light.

    The effects of red light and far red light are reversible. Sunlight is mainly red light so the conversion of Pr to Pfr dominates and plants are able to grow as they have lots of Pfr, which is active. In the dark Pfr is slowly converted back to Pr, which is inactive, but this is done to enable the conversion of Pr to Pfr when red light is absorbed again in sunlight.

    The reason why some plants are classed as short-day plants is that they convert Pfr back to Pr slowly, whereas some plants, known as long-day plants, can convert Pfr back to Pr quickly, so they don't require as much darkness for the plant to be able to continue growing. This is why plants have different growing seasons - known as photoperiods.

    Hope this helps!
    Thanks man...I'll add this to my notes later!
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    About the pre-release article:
    Obviously the main element related to our syllabus is genetic engineering, there is a bit about it at AS and more at A2 with regards to bacteria, plants and animals (genetically modifying them to produce substances helpful for humans e.g. insulin, vaccines), and then issues with GM (e.g. transfer of antibiotic resistance, who owns the new organisms). But I am struggling with applying this to the article. In what ways could they relate this syllabus material to the article? I mean I know the worms/rats/flies/humanbrains were genetically modified, but how would it apply more specifically? What kinda questions could they ask, and how would you answer them with relation to syllabus info? cause I can't see how it relates to the majority of the stuff on GM plants, crops, spread of antibiotic and pesticide resistance - the dancing worms are hardly gonna find a way out of the lab and reproduce with wild worms....

    apologies if that didn't make sense lol

    oh and one more thing, what links have you made between the 'stressed out' and 'pain' sections and the syllabus? All I have is
    'stressed out' -> immune system? synapses/neurotransmitters
    'pain and gender' -> again - tranmission of nerve impulse (synapses/neurotransmitters)
    any other links you can think of? for any of the three sections of the article?
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    (Original post by _joshb_)
    About the pre-release article:
    Obviously the main element related to our syllabus is genetic engineering, there is a bit about it at AS and more at A2 with regards to bacteria, plants and animals (genetically modifying them to produce substances helpful for humans e.g. insulin, vaccines), and then issues with GM (e.g. transfer of antibiotic resistance, who owns the new organisms). But I am struggling with applying this to the article. In what ways could they relate this syllabus material to the article? I mean I know the worms/rats/flies/humanbrains were genetically modified, but how would it apply more specifically? What kinda questions could they ask, and how would you answer them with relation to syllabus info? cause I can't see how it relates to the majority of the stuff on GM plants, crops, spread of antibiotic and pesticide resistance - the dancing worms are hardly gonna find a way out of the lab and reproduce with wild worms....

    apologies if that didn't make sense lol

    oh and one more thing, what links have you made between the 'stressed out' and 'pain' sections and the syllabus? All I have is
    'stressed out' -> immune system? synapses/neurotransmitters
    'pain and gender' -> again - tranmission of nerve impulse (synapses/neurotransmitters)
    any other links you can think of? for any of the three sections of the article?
    from what i remember about the sample assessment that we got, a lot of the questions were comprehension. The questions regarding the biology itself is pretty much just encoded in the context. for example:

    8.(a) Describe using specific examples evidence that the black death was caused by a virus.

    Most of these marks were comprehensive, but you could have also said that the incubation period was similar to a virus, which we know from the syllabus.

    8.(c) Explain how small samples of DNA from a burial site can be amplified and how such samples might be used to find the identity of an unknown virus.

    This is one of those encoded questions i was talking about which basically says how is dna amplified and how can it be used. Answers being PCR and gel electrophoresis. so this is a syllabus question.

    Basically, dont worry too much about how to answer bio questions in relation to the syllabus, all it is is figuring out whether its a comprehensive or syllabus related question.

    Oh and knowing how stupid edexcel are, you might just get a mark for saying that the worms are gonna escape and interbreed 8D
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    oh yeah and sidrah, you are absolutely legendary.
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    (Original post by sidrah)
    Just finished on topic 8..
    Topic 8 is the first one, and I've also got topic 7 with the correction.
    My neurone drawings are awful, so the brain and eye were off google lol..
    Very grateful! unlike SOME people *COUGH*dunnoboutme*COUGH*.

    +REP

    EDIT - I tried to REP you but was told I can't as I have already done so!
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    sidrah, thanks. I just printed your notes and they're on my wall

    What was the error in Topic 7 though?
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    (Original post by Mos001)
    from what i remember about the sample assessment that we got, a lot of the questions were comprehension. The questions regarding the biology itself is pretty much just encoded in the context. for example:

    8.(a) Describe using specific examples evidence that the black death was caused by a virus.

    Most of these marks were comprehensive, but you could have also said that the incubation period was similar to a virus, which we know from the syllabus.

    8.(c) Explain how small samples of DNA from a burial site can be amplified and how such samples might be used to find the identity of an unknown virus.

    This is one of those encoded questions i was talking about which basically says how is dna amplified and how can it be used. Answers being PCR and gel electrophoresis. so this is a syllabus question.

    Basically, dont worry too much about how to answer bio questions in relation to the syllabus, all it is is figuring out whether its a comprehensive or syllabus related question.

    Oh and knowing how stupid edexcel are, you might just get a mark for saying that the worms are gonna escape and interbreed 8D
    Thanks for that! But say they asked: 'suggest how the worms/rats/humanbrains were genetically modified' how would you answer? what kind of vectors could the researchers have used?
    and say they asked a comprehension question, like the one you mentioned, surely you can't just copy out word-for-word the specific bits of the article which answer the question?
    oh and how would you differentiate between comprehensive/syllabus questions? because if a question began with 'suggest...' or 'explain...' or whatever, I'd not know whether it was asking me to pick out bits of the article or write about relevant bits of syllabus knowledge :/

    and yeah, i swear the only possible implication of creating the GM worms is that they might boogie their way out of the lab and knock up non-GM worms on the outside.. lol
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    sidrah, thanks. I just printed your notes and they're on my wall

    What was the error in Topic 7 though?
    the first one said that troponin moves out of the way so the myosin head can bind, but it's actually tropomyosin that moves (this movement is caused by calcium binding to troponin C though)
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    (Original post by sidrah)
    I'm sure you can all edit that part. Where it says parasympathetic and sympathetic for the pupil reflex- switch them round lol
    Thank you Sidrah, for you lovely notes.
    Hats off

    Cheers.
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    (Original post by _joshb_)
    Thanks for that! But say they asked: 'suggest how the worms/rats/humanbrains were genetically modified' how would you answer? what kind of vectors could the researchers have used?
    and say they asked a comprehension question, like the one you mentioned, surely you can't just copy out word-for-word the specific bits of the article which answer the question?
    oh and how would you differentiate between comprehensive/syllabus questions? because if a question began with 'suggest...' or 'explain...' or whatever, I'd not know whether it was asking me to pick out bits of the article or write about relevant bits of syllabus knowledge :/

    and yeah, i swear the only possible implication of creating the GM worms is that they might boogie their way out of the lab and knock up non-GM worms on the outside.. lol
    Although I would be more inclined to write about plasmids and liposomes, my teacher said that they tend to use gene guns now to transfer the genes. not sure how these work, but they sound pretty cool :cool:

    In general, if you can find the exact answer to the question in the material, then it's just asking you to write that, but if it says something like 'explain' you tend to need to use your own knowledge.
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    Ok. Well, troponin changes shape and moves and so does tropomysoin :P
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    (Original post by _joshb_)
    About the pre-release article:
    Obviously the main element related to our syllabus is genetic engineering, there is a bit about it at AS and more at A2 with regards to bacteria, plants and animals (genetically modifying them to produce substances helpful for humans e.g. insulin, vaccines), and then issues with GM (e.g. transfer of antibiotic resistance, who owns the new organisms). But I am struggling with applying this to the article. In what ways could they relate this syllabus material to the article? I mean I know the worms/rats/flies/humanbrains were genetically modified, but how would it apply more specifically? What kinda questions could they ask, and how would you answer them with relation to syllabus info? cause I can't see how it relates to the majority of the stuff on GM plants, crops, spread of antibiotic and pesticide resistance - the dancing worms are hardly gonna find a way out of the lab and reproduce with wild worms....

    apologies if that didn't make sense lol

    oh and one more thing, what links have you made between the 'stressed out' and 'pain' sections and the syllabus? All I have is
    'stressed out' -> immune system? synapses/neurotransmitters
    'pain and gender' -> again - tranmission of nerve impulse (synapses/neurotransmitters)
    any other links you can think of? for any of the three sections of the article?
    Someone put up a document of possible synoptic links ages ago. Have a look at some of the earlier pages of this thread and you should find it.
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    (Original post by skotch)
    Although I would be more inclined to write about plasmids and liposomes, my teacher said that they tend to use gene guns now to transfer the genes. not sure how these work, but they sound pretty cool :cool:

    In general, if you can find the exact answer to the question in the material, then it's just asking you to write that, but if it says something like 'explain' you tend to need to use your own knowledge.
    So..
    Worms: genes for light sensitive membrane protein inserted into the worms with plasmid/liposome/gene gun..?
    Rats' barrel cortex: probably the same
    Flies: same again?
    Parkinsons sufferers' brains: virus I think it said

    and they would have isolated the gene for the light sensitive membrane protein with restriction endonucleases maybe?
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    sidrah, thanks. I just printed your notes and they're on my wall

    What was the error in Topic 7 though?
    The latest attachment had the correction with the topic 7 one. Also in topic 8, switch round parasympathetic and sympathetic- easy enough, and I was so convinced it was right how I'd done it.. Minor mistakes considering how much info I had to trawl through :p:

    And just tried to return the rep, but couldn't, so will do so tomorrow
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    Y is everyone taking a piss off Topic 7?
    Is it that easy ?
    I think we should start focusing on the Article.
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    (Original post by Mos001)
    oh yeah and sidrah, you are absolutely legendary.
    thanks!
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    (Original post by _joshb_)
    Thanks for that! But say they asked: 'suggest how the worms/rats/humanbrains were genetically modified' how would you answer? what kind of vectors could the researchers have used?
    and say they asked a comprehension question, like the one you mentioned, surely you can't just copy out word-for-word the specific bits of the article which answer the question?
    oh and how would you differentiate between comprehensive/syllabus questions? because if a question began with 'suggest...' or 'explain...' or whatever, I'd not know whether it was asking me to pick out bits of the article or write about relevant bits of syllabus knowledge :/

    and yeah, i swear the only possible implication of creating the GM worms is that they might boogie their way out of the lab and knock up non-GM worms on the outside.. lol
    For a question like that you should talk about how any animal is genetically modified, genes for whichever protein are injected into the nucleus of a fertilised egg cell and then allowed to grow in an adult animal. that question to me basically says how does genetic modification work in animals.

    in terms of differentiating, its not about suggest or explain etc. if i have no idea how to answer a question with syllabus knowledge, its probably in the text. and as far as i remember, word for word works. but by friday you should have read the article a couple million times over, so youd know instantly if the answer is to be found in the text or in the wonderful snab part of our brains.
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    actually scotch is right about if its explain its more likely syllabus, but i do remember a comprehensive explain question, so i personally dont really pay attention to them when it comes to article v syllabus.
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    (Original post by Mos001)
    For a question like that you should talk about how any animal is genetically modified, genes for whichever protein are injected into the nucleus of a fertilised egg cell and then allowed to grow in an adult animal.
    Really? wouldn't they have used vectors to transfer the genes into an adult organism, as they only wanted the genes in certain muscle cells down the side of the worm? and only in the rat's barrel cortex and the mouse's retina etc?
 
 
 
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