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    The one thing I don't understand with the article is where it talks about how adaptation to stress might occur - meaning habituation

    Repeated stress causes more neuradrenaline to be produced, meaning more noradrenaline binds to b-adrenoreceptors, which means more cyclic AMP is produced in both the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neurone.

    But how does that lead to Noradrenaline becoming less able to stimulate the cell?

    It's also difficult cause there aare apparently b-adrenoreceptors on the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane, so I don't even understand which neurone it's talking about.

    It's in the second last paragraph on page 8.
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    (Original post by shuvo_roy)
    hey...someone please answer my fMRI question???
    2 people did answer it... check your quotes.
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    I still don't get this ETC concept;

    10 Describe the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation associated with the electron transport chain in mitochondria, including the role of chemiosmosis and ATPase.
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    (Original post by _joshb_)
    Really? wouldn't they have used vectors to transfer the genes into an adult organism, as they only wanted the genes in certain muscle cells down the side of the worm? and only in the rat's barrel cortex and the mouse's retina etc?
    by jove, youre right. ive not read the article in ages D:
    Somatic gene therapy targets specific cells, but i dont believe we've ever been taught how exactly this targetting happens, so im not sure well get a question on it.

    but if by chance we do, im might just go with plasmids. theres probably a couple marks for talking about restriction enzymes and pcr etc.
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    hey nay one got more question to practice
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    (Original post by pingu09)
    I still don't get this ETC concept;

    10 Describe the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation associated with the electron transport chain in mitochondria, including the role of chemiosmosis and ATPase.
    Reduced coenzymes NAD & FAD are oxidised to release H atoms. H atoms split into H+ & e-. Electrons move along etc losing energy in redox reactions, this energy is used to move H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space by active transport, forming electrochemical gradient.

    The H+ ions then diffuse back through down ec gradient to the matrix but they also change the shape of ATP synthase when they do this so it is now activated and ATP is produced. Then the final reaction:
    2H+ + 1/2O2 + 2e- ----> H2O

    Hope that helps! :cool:
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    Wow - i want to thank sidrah & skotch for all there notes (& everyone else who are just as great ).
    Quick question: what equations do we need to know e.g. cardiac output etc?
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    (Original post by jimber)
    Reduced coenzymes NAD & FAD are oxidised to release H atoms. H atoms split into H+ & e-. Electrons move along etc losing energy in redox reactions, this energy is used to move H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space by active transport, forming electrochemical gradient.

    The H+ ions then diffuse back through down ec gradient to the matrix but they also change the shape of ATP synthase when they do this so it is now activated and ATP is produced. Then the final reaction:
    2H+ + 1/2O2 + 2e- ----> H2O

    Hope that helps! :cool:
    AMAZING! Just what I was looking for, thank you so much... the text book doesn't describe this well at all, infact now I took a look at the book I finally found the section in which it mentions this and had no idea it was there before.. =/

    I think I'm fully equiped for respiration now. =]
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    Arrgh. I've printed off the SNAB exam-style topic test sheets for topic 7 and 8 and now can't find the marks schemes for them!

    Does anyone have them, please?
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    (Original post by HyperNova)
    AMAZING! Just what I was looking for, thank you so much... the text book doesn't describe this well at all, infact now I took a look at the book I finally found the section in which it mentions this and had no idea it was there before.. =/

    I think I'm fully equiped for respiration now. =]
    haha its no prob! did whole coursework on respiration, do etc in pe & bio so its embedded into my brain :p:
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    (Original post by Mos001)
    im might just go with plasmids. theres probably a couple marks for talking about restriction enzymes and pcr etc.
    by that do you mean inserting the gene for the light-sensitive protein into a plasmid in a bacterium, and infecting the cell with the bacterium? or can plasmids (which i assume must come from a bacteria) be inserted into the cells another way?
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    im guessing it works by infecting the cells, either by bacteria or a virus with some modified viral dna but seeing as its not in our syllabus nor in the booklet to such, i doubt well get a question asking us. someone correct me if im wrong.

    but do check out somatic gene therapy, it'd work in a similar way to how this would.
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    (Original post by jimber)
    Reduced coenzymes NAD & FAD are oxidised to release H atoms. H atoms split into H+ & e-. Electrons move along etc losing energy in redox reactions, this energy is used to move H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space by active transport, forming electrochemical gradient.

    The H+ ions then diffuse back through down ec gradient to the matrix but they also change the shape of ATP synthase when they do this so it is now activated and ATP is produced. Then the final reaction:
    2H+ + 1/2O2 + 2e- ----> H2O

    Hope that helps! :cool:
    Thanks man..........that really [email protected]! Is the net ATP given by 1 NADH(3 ATP) is the energy produced by ATP synthetase - energy used to move H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space by active transport
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    basically, im bored of this. I want 10.30am the 28th of june, to be tomorrow. PLEASE.:eek:
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    (Original post by dynamikal)
    basically, im bored of this. I want 10.30am the 28th of june, to be tomorrow. PLEASE.:eek:
    28th of june? im having mine on the 25th at 1:45pm..?
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    (Original post by skotch)
    2 people did answer it... check your quotes.
    I posted a follow-up question!
    The green student book says,
    Deoxyhaemoglobin absorbs the radiowave signal and later re-emits it, while oxyhaemoglobin does not. When an area of the brain is active, the blood flow to that area increases and more oxyhaemoglobin is delivered to supply the active cells with the oxygen they need from aerobic respiration. Less of the signal is absorbed as a result.
    But, isn't amount of deoxyhaemoglobin increases when oxyhaemoglobin is more...and so shouldn't more of the signal be absorbed when the brain is active?
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    He meant he wants his last day of exam to come soon, haha
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    Yeah dont worry my exam is still the same as you guys :P
    Although I start 15 minutes earlier than you Mos001.

    But yea doughy's got it :P I have chem on 28th ;(

    HURRY UPPPP.

    On a biology note, can someone explain the structure of rod and cone cells to their functions? My CGP book explains what they do but no so much on the structures, and ive seen a past paper q or two with arrows pointing so a certain feature and asking whats this and im like ZOMG ROD.
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    The one thing I don't understand with the article is where it talks about how adaptation to stress might occur - meaning habituation

    Repeated stress causes more neuradrenaline to be produced, meaning more noradrenaline binds to b-adrenoreceptors, which means more cyclic AMP is produced in both the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neurone.

    But how does that lead to Noradrenaline becoming less able to stimulate the cell?

    It's also difficult cause there aare apparently b-adrenoreceptors on the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane, so I don't even understand which neurone it's talking about.

    It's in the second last paragraph on page 8.
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    (Original post by shuvo_roy)
    Thanks man..........that really [email protected]! Is the net ATP given by 1 NADH(3 ATP) is the energy produced by ATP synthetase - energy used to move H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space by active transport
    Well the only useable form of energy in body is ATP so look at the electrons moving down the ETC as forming ATP via ATP synthase separately, but I just think we need to know its active transport.
 
 
 
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