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    (Original post by Mos001)
    im guessing it works by infecting the cells, either by bacteria or a virus with some modified viral dna but seeing as its not in our syllabus nor in the booklet to such, i doubt well get a question asking us. someone correct me if im wrong.

    but do check out somatic gene therapy, it'd work in a similar way to how this would.
    In the text book it's got 4 ways of making transgenic animals, so that's similar. The methods for putting DNA into a cell are:
    - Microinjection (hit and miss, but best reuslts)
    - Microprojectiles (may kill cells but some take it up)
    - Virus
    - Liposome wrapping (lipid bilayer fuses with cells, releasing DNA by endocytosis)

    I guess once the DNA is in the cell we just accept that it is then included for transcrpition.... but it doesn't actually say. Help?
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    Ive read through the article and fai to understand what link there is to that and the Qs they may ask.
    Can't we just answer them using what we've learnt through the ccourse??

    what is the purpose of the article?/
    ans please
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    :eek3: does anyone know where the mark scheme for june 2009 is cos i can't find it anywhere??
    thanks
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    What are you guys learning for:

    Discuss how the outcomes of the Human Genome Project are being used in the development of new drugs and the social, moral and ethical issues this raises.
    The human genome project has identified all the genes found in the human DNA, the information obtained from the Human Genome Project is stored in databases. Scientists use the databases to identify genes and so proteins that are involved in diseases, Scientists are using this information to create new drugs that target the identified proteins. The Human Genome Project has also highlighted genetic variations that are common between people. Its known that some of these variations make the drugs less effective. Drug companies can thus use this information to design new drugs that are effective in people with these variations.
    However ethical and moral issues are raised. The use of the Human Genome Project to create drugs for specific genetic variations could lead to a two tier health service, enabling only the wealthier people to afford the new drugs.
    Also, Some people may be refused an expensive drug becaue their genetic makeup indicates that it wuill be ineffective, but this may be the only drug available for them.
    The information held withing a persons genome could be used to discriminate against them, eg by employers and health insurace companies.
    It may be psychologically damamging for someone to be told that a drug may not work on them.


    Straight outve page 93 of the cgp book...

    that would b okay rightt?
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    (Original post by kironkabir)
    Pons


    Function:

    >Arousal
    >Assists in Controlling Autonomic Functions
    >Relays Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
    >Sleep

    Location:

    >The pons is the portion of the brainstem that is superior (above) to the medulla oblongata.
    Yes, I been on that website and it didn't really explain to me what it actually does?

    so it releases chemicals that over-rides thinking and releases chemicals for sleep?
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    (Original post by liv jones)
    :eek3: does anyone know where the mark scheme for june 2009 is cos i can't find it anywhere??
    thanks
    been looking for that myself. Can't seem to find it!
    sorry
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    (Original post by kironkabir)
    Pons


    Function:

    >Arousal
    >Assists in Controlling Autonomic Functions
    >Relays Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
    >Sleep

    Location:

    >The pons is the portion of the brainstem that is superior (above) to the medulla oblongata.
    Do we need to know this =/
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    (Original post by AnythingButChardonnay)
    Arrgh. I've printed off the SNAB exam-style topic test sheets for topic 7 and 8 and now can't find the marks schemes for them!

    Does anyone have them, please?
    Hi is there any chance that you could upload the topic tests onto here? cos i can't get onto the snab website anymore?! sorry i dont have the mark schemes.
    thanks
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    (Original post by kappleberry)
    been looking for that myself. Can't seem to find it!
    sorry
    there hasn't been a past paper for this unit. This is the first time it is being assessed.
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    (Original post by redraindrop)
    there hasn't been a past paper for this unit. This is the first time it is being assessed.
    I know, but the old spec papers are quite similar
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    just wondering... are people learning the experiments that lead up to the discovery of auxins or do we just need to know how they affect phototropism?
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    (Original post by 03eleitch)
    just wondering... are people learning the experiments that lead up to the discovery of auxins or do we just need to know how they affect phototropism?
    i've learnt that experiment. its the one where you cut the tip of a leaf put agar on it, and it will still continue to grow and bend towards the light?




    also, can someone help me out??

    can someone explain the pr and pfr in terms of germination etc? will rep.
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    (Original post by kappleberry)
    been looking for that myself. Can't seem to find it!
    sorry
    I have a paper copy. Is there a particular question, I can type up the answer for?
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    (Original post by Pedus)
    can someone explain the pr and pfr in terms of germination etc? will rep.
    Phytochrome is a light-sensitive receptor/pigment in plants. When it absorbs red light (from the sun) it changes from the inactive form Pr into the active form Pfr. Once Pfr is present the plant undergoes developmental processes which in this case could be germination. However if the phytochrome then abosrbs far red light (also from the sun) it then changes from Pfr back into the inactive Pr and hense the germination stops.
    Pfr can also slowly turn back into the inactive Pr in the dark. Hense when you try to grow seeds in dark closest etc they wont germinate as the developmental processes don't get turned on.
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    Guys, I'm actually not learning about pons and parasympathetic nerves and reflex and all that...
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    (Original post by Uberuvy)
    Phytochrome is a light-sensitive receptor/pigment in plants. When it absorbs red light (from the sun) it changes the inactive form Pr into the active form Pfr. Once Pfr is present the plant undergoes developmental processes which in this case could be germination. However if the phytochrome then abosrbs far red light (also from the sun) it then changes Pfr back into the inactive Pr and hense the germination stops.
    Pfr can also slowly turn back into the inactive Pr in the dark. Hense when you try to grow seeds in dark closest etc they wont germinate as the developmental processes don't get turned on.
    Right, I kinda get that, but in the book it says that "Red light triggers germination, far-red light inhibits germination" which is totally oposite to what you said
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    Guys, I'm actually not learning about pons and parasympathetic nerves and reflex and all that...
    Its something that is very unlikely to come up in the exam anyways.. i'm also going to gamble and do the same :wink2:
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    (Original post by Pedus)
    Right, I kinda get that, but in the book it says that "Red light triggers germination, far-red light inhibits germination" which is totally oposite to what you said
    Naw thats what i said :p:
    red light > phytochrome turns from Pr into Pfr > developmental processes turn on > germination.

    far red light > phytochrome turns from Pfr into Pr > developmental processes turn off > germination inhibited.
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    (Original post by Uberuvy)
    Naw thats what i said :p:
    red light > phytochrome turns from Pr into Pfr > developmental processes turn on > germination.

    far red light > phytochrome turns from Pfr into Pr > developmental processes turn off > germination inhibited.
    I've got it now! Eureeeeeka! :yep:

    I'll rep you tommorow morning, as I've used my rep today..
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    Coolio, if you got anymore Q's shoot away and il try answering them.
    Oh and do we need to know how to label the eye? And whats a pon?
 
 
 
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