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    (Original post by kappleberry)
    I haven't got these!
    Thankyuus!
    Here's the original documents IMPORTANT LINKS BELOW GUYS:

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...2&postcount=62 QUESTIONS ANSWERS

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...7&postcount=47 QUESTIONS [SAME AS ABOVE, DOWNLOAD TO BE SURE]

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...8&postcount=60 SYNOPTIC LINKS

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/atta...9&d=1275219155 QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS what anonymous just posted except in word form!

    Just use your brain and download everything above and figure out what you didn't have already.
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    (Original post by Nereis)
    Not seen a reply to this, sorry if someone else has replied. Assuming it works in the same way as normal habituation, it's the calcium channels on the pre-synaptic side which become less responsive. Therefore a greater frequecny of action potentials is required to meet the threshold and open the calcium channels fully. Less calcium ions = less synaptic vesicles binding to the pre-synaptic membrane = less noradrenaline in synaptic cleft.

    Could do with a little help on this one:
    Describe the role animal models have played in developing explanations of human brain development and function, including Hubel and Wiesel’s experiments with monkeys and kittens.

    Which studies are Hubel & Wiesel's?
    Hubel and Wiesel's studies are the ones where they stitch shut one eye in kittens and monkeys at different times... some get blinded and some not which outlines that there is critical window of development affected by nurture (p. 229). I know this doesn't fully answer the question but hope it gets you on the right track!
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    Okay, here goes LOL

    Dancing Worms and Deep Depression

    This section of the article simply describes how humans are trying to establish the link between the brain and the mind (particularly how normal life is affected by mental disorders and other diseases such as depression and Parkinson's Disease). We need reliable ways of correcting these horrible problems but those ways are proving to be elusive! :o: Current treatments use "sledgehammer drugs or electrodes". Sledge hammer drugs tell us that the drugs have very bad side effects and they may also trigger other undesirable emotions. Electrodes are hard to handle because of the exact precision needed. It's very very hard to pin point a particular neurone to fire with electrodes. What usually happens is that a bundle of neurones are actually fired and many events follow that (good + bad).

    So in order to get better and precise treatments, we need to understand how the brain works...

    The article talks about 'dancing worms' and flies. We use these animals because their bodies utilise neurones just like ours do. The ethical implications of using these simple animals come into play here. I won't bother to expand on that now, but please remind me to do so! It's for my own benefit as well.

    Scientists discovered that they can use channel proteins to make neurones sensitive to light! This means that we can actually engineer particular neuron types to react to light. Of course, we'd need to understand exactly which neurones do what (imaging techniques e.g. fMRI here). The big limitation is that it's quite hard to get light into the brain.

    It's best if we don't use light sensitive compounds because we'd have to genetically engineer brain cells to have the light sensitive compounds [such as the form of ATP]. Besides, our skulls/heads are opaque! So even if we do master neurones and light [which we haven't] problems also arise in determining how we get light into the brain. Hair-thin optical fibres are possible, but how feasible are they for use with humans?

    And gene therapy in the brain may be easy, but convincing people to experiment on the BRAIN of all organs is a toughie. Cystic fibrosis is easy[easier] to control with gene therapy cause of the locations of infected organs. The brain is quite a sensitive and important organ and it's location isn't exactly convenient to delve into either.

    Keep in mind that even if these therapies are successful, who exactly will be able to use them? Will we be able to afford them? What if people start to abuse the privilege and want to make humans with super brains?

    [all the other details of the article just basically describe the works of each scientist etc]

    Hope this has helped someone
    Brilliant, but I don't think the idea is shinning light directly at the BRAIN. It could be via our eye (Sensory organs). You could argue that the brain has ridiculously evolved from the basic vertebrate pattern (image on page -220 green edexcel book) to a much more very complex remarkable organ. Our knowledge is limited. The worms have a simple and easy nervous system compared to ours.
    We can hit many marks talking about the ethics (hopefully).
    fMRI - only because it is the only techniques that shows brain activity.

    Cheers,
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    Discussions @ http://qchat.rizon.net/

    Channel - BIO5
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    (Original post by samydude)
    Brilliant, but I don't think the idea is shinning light directly at the BRAIN. It could be via our eye (Sensory organs). You could argue that the brain has ridiculously evolved from the basic vertebrate pattern (image on page -220 green edexcel book) to a much more very complex remarkable organ. Our knowledge is limited. The worms have a simple and easy nervous system compared to ours.
    We can hit many marks talking about the ethics (hopefully).
    fMRI - only because it is the only techniques that shows brain activity.

    Cheers,
    No. The eye does not contain neurones that are in emotional connections. I kind of see where you are coming from, but it's simply not easily possible. Besides, it's not like they can magically wire neurones in the eye to emotional connections or other connections for that matter.
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    No. The eye does not contain neurones that are in emotional connections. I kind of see where you are coming from, but it's simply not easily possible. Besides, it's not like they can magically wire neurones in the eye to emotional connections or other connections for that matter.
    The question could be about anything ...:confused:
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    does anyone have like notes on the article i can borrow. any help will be appreciated
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    (Original post by evilzadi)
    does anyone have like notes on the article i can borrow. any help will be appreciated
    Sorry, i'm struggling with that myself. But have a look at the links Doughboy posted a few posts ago..?

    Should help
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    (Original post by kappleberry)
    Sorry, i'm struggling with that myself. But have a look at the links Doughboy posted a few posts ago..?

    Should help
    found it thanks alot
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    (Original post by AnythingButChardonnay)
    Found them all and their mark schemes! Enjoy.
    thanks, i already repped doughbouy so i'll rep you tomorrow,
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    Stressed out article is horrible!
    Can't seem to understand it and answer questions on it!
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    (Original post by ♥anonymousgangster)
    My school gave me this
    thanks
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    (Original post by Doughboy)

    Hope this has helped someone
    thanks alot. enjoy the rep
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    Can someone tell me whether this is correct:
    How a chemical could block pain and counteract the effect of analgesics?
    Mimick neurotransmitters
    Prevent neurotransmitter from binding with receptors on post synaptic membrane
    Inhibit enzymes that recycle neurotransmitters
    Block Ca2+ channels – preventing vesicles fusing with pre synaptic membrane and releasing neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft

    Thankyou very much
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    can someone post some details about the synoptic stuff we are meant to know.............that would be very helpful
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    these are some model Q&A for the articles that my teacher gave us. i've copied and pasted it. didn't know how else to put it here, but hope it helps anyway

    Spoiler:
    Show

    Scientific article with use with Q7 module 5 June 2010
    Model Answers to possible questions, with thanks to Alex and Ms Riddle for their work on this.

    Dancing worms & deep depression

    1. Give two reasons why the use of light for neuromodification would have advantages over previous techniques.

    - It would be a precise method of treatment giving greater accuracy in treatment.
    - Drugs don't just act in one area of the brain, so using a precise method would reduce side effects / All drugs have undesirable side effects.
    - The usage of such methods could be beneficial in neurological research, meaning treatments could improve

    2) Explain fully the science behind the phrase “Zapping neurons with a wire electrode triggers an electric spike” (Include a diagram)

    -This refers to inducing an action potential in a neurone.
    -It involves the usage of electrodes to induce an action potential.
    -The electric current causes a change in potential difference across the neurone.
    -This causes voltage dependent sodium ion channels to open.
    -Sodium ions move into the neurone and change the resting potential from -70mV to +40mV by changing the P.d (potential difference) across the cell), depolarisation.

    Diagram should include the trace of an action potential (initiation, depolarisation, repolarisation and hyper polarisation). The potential differences at each point should be labelled

    Or

    A diagram of the neurone being stimulated by two electrodes. The electrodes should be situated about the axon of the neurone. One should be labelled positive and one negative, with an oscilloscope trace next to it

    3.(a) Describe the usual procedures for treating 1) Parkinson’s disease and 2) depression.
    3.(b) What are the disadvantages of these methods.
    3.(c) Describe the new treatments which are being proposed for illnesses such as Parkinson’s & depression?

    ai) Parkinsons: Leva(L)-Dopa. Levadopa is a precurser to dopamine. It can be absorbed into the brain where as dopamine cannot. Because it is structurally similar to dopamine, it is actively converted into dopamine.

    aii) Depression: SSRIs (selective seretonin re-uptake inhibitors). These prevent the reuptake of seretonin into the presynaptic membrane. This increases the level of seretoninn in the synaptic cleft to stimulate the post synaptic membrane.

    DO NOT: accept DBS or ECT (vagal nerve stimulation or scalp electrode stimulation, or DBS for parkinsons) These are more extreme therapies. MDMA (estacy) is a class A drug and has no beneficial effects for depression, it also causes neurostructural modfication leading to brain function similar to depression.

    b)
    - Disadvantages for both drug treatments are the wide spread activity of drugs in the brain.
    - All drugs have undesirable side effects.
    - Some drugs are addictive

    c) New treatments: The genetic modification of specific neurones in certain parts of the brain which are linked to depression; modifying the neurones to produce light sensitive membrane proteins which could be controlled precisely by the activation and deactivation of tiny lights. (2)

    4) Suggest ideas for military applications of Meisenbock’s work

    - Treatment for soldier who have lost their limbs, to relieve the effects of "ghost limb syndrome".
    - The lowering, or turning off of inhibitions of new recruits to increase agression.

    5) EITHER
    Describe & explain the procedure used by a Meisenboch to make fruitflies try to fly when stimulated by a particular wave length of light.
    OR
    Describe & explain the procedure used by a Gotchalk to make worms “dance“ to blue & yellow wave lengths of light.

    Option 1.

    Meiesenbock inserted the P2x2 gene into brain cells of the fruit flies using a vector.
    He inserted it into two of the 125,000 nerves in the giant fibre network.
    Miesenbock then injected the flies with light sensitive ATP. This is ATP which only activates when stimulated by light of a certain wavelenth. The P2x2 protein is only activated by combining with ATP, so this makes the combination light sensitive.
    When he flashed light of a certain wavelent, the light sensitive ATP was activated.
    This activated the P2x2 protein and stimulated the neurones. The flies fluttered their wings as if trying to flee. The flies which did not have the gene did not respond.

    Because ALL of the information is in the article (aside from the use of vectors), precision is important to get the marks.

    Option 2

    - Gotchalk inserted the ChR2 gene and the NpHR gene into the muscles and the neurones which control those muscles (neuromuscular junctions).
    - The NpHR gene produces a membrane protein which stimulates neurones in response to blue light causing an action potential to be initiated. (1)
    - The ChR2 protein inhibits, "paralyzes" neurones when it is exposed to yellow light.
    - When the worm was exposed to blue light, the neurones at the neuromuscular junction with the NpHR protein, fired and caused the muscles in the worms side to contract, causing the worm to move back.
    - When the worm was exposed to yellow light the ChR2 protein was activated, causing the muscles to relax and the neurones to stop firing. The worms muscles relaxed and the work lengthened.

    6) (a) Describe & explain the procedure used by a Pan to restore eyesight in a strain of “blind mice.”
    (b) Use your knowledge about sight as well as the article to explain why the results of Pan’s work are inconclusive.

    a) Suggested method: Viral vector, Liposome, Bacterial. DNA gun should not be accepted. Viral vector would be the best method.

    - Method: Pan may have inserted the ChR2 gene into the genome of an attenuated virus.
    - He then infected the rats with the virus. The virus then inserted its genome into the hosts (including the ChR2 gene) via the intergrase enzyme.
    - The cells in the host then began to produce the protein which was then intergrated into the neurones membranes.
    - Pan then stimulated the rats with light of the correct wavelength and tested to see if the signal was transmitted to the occipital lobe via the optic nerve.

    b)If the rats were blind from birth, and the treatment was applied after the critical windows of development, then even if the signals were transmitted to the column cells of the occipital lobe, the signal may not be intergrated because the left and right columns would not have received any stimulus from the optic nerve, and so the unused neurones would have died back and the columns would not have developed. Therefore, the signal may not be integrated and interpreted.

    Or

    Even if the rats did have some surviving retinal cells, they may not have had enough stimulus during the period of occipital column development to allows for proper development of the columns + The same argument as the above.


    7) What is the problem for this type of procedure in working with mammals?
    - Animal brains are simpler than those of humans. The same procedure may not yield the same results.
    - Animals can feel pain.
    - Animals cannot give consent. Need at least 2 to get full marks.

    8) What moral or ethical issues are raised by the use of Electro Convulsive Therapy?

    - Whether the risks of potential brain damage outweigh the potential benefits.
    - But all drugs have negative side effects, so it may be the only option.
    - Problems can occur when the voltage cannot be turned up higher, so the treatment may not have any effect

    9) With reference to examples from the article suggest how brain imaging techniques may be of use to the experimenters?
    Will not accept CT scan. A CT scan CAN image soft tissue, but it cannot trace activity in soft tissue.

    f. M.R.I. (Functional magnetic resonance imaging).
    - f.M.R.I. can take high resolution images at 4 frames per second.
    - It can track brain activity, because oxyhaemoglobin does not absorb the radio-waves used in the technique.
    - When brain activity increases, there is more oxyhaemoglobin in the area of high activity. (1)
    - This means less radio signal is absorbed by the brain tissue. (1)
    - So M.R.I. scanner detects this and this causes the areas of the brain which are more active to light up.
    With this the brain activity can be traced. (1)

    Will accept a radioactive tracer with an adequate explanation, but only for 2 marks.

    10) Suggest how the sunlight detecting gene from algae – producing protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) – could be introduced into the human genome.
    Viral vector insertion + all steps involved, or any legitimate technique covered in the course with a full explanation.

    11) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using worms in these experiments?

    Pro:
    - These worms have a short life cycle, so the long term life long effects can be studied.
    - They can be produced in large numbers easily.
    - Their genomes are fully sequenced.
    - Their anatomy is very simple so effects can be easily interpreted.
    - They are easily taken care of.
    - It avoids the use of vertebrates.

    Con:
    - Humans are more complex, so the results may not be applicable to humans.
    - A logical ethical argument. You need one of each to get full marks.

    Stressed out
    1. (a) The majority of people manage stress successfully. State two ways in which this can be achieved.
    1. (b) Give four symptoms associated with failure to manage stress.

    1 a) - Hormones are secretions from endocrine glands (internal glands) which release packaged or inactive forms, into the blood, for example; adrenaline produced by the adrenal glands atop the kidneys.
    - Hormones bring about physiological changes which prepare the body for the "fight or flight" response.
    - Neurones which secret the hormone noradrenaline have been discovered.

    b) Toughening up and avoidance are two ways of dealing with stress.

    c)- Irritability
    - Cardio vascular diseases
    - Chronic fatigue
    - Anxiety
    - Depression
    - Gastric ulcers
    - Mental health issues such as Schizophrenia

    2) Adrenalin & noradrenalin were initially known as hormones. Describe their source & role.
    When adrenaline is released by the adreno glands into the blood, it prepares us for fight or flight, it leads to the diversion of blood flow from unimportant organs like the intestines and towards the skeletal muscles. Adrenaline can cause physiological effects similar to those in fear and anxiety
    Neurones which secret adrenaline have discovered in the iris of the eye and the gut.

    3) More recently adrenalin & noradrenalin have been discovered to be neurotransmitters. Explain the function of a neurotransmitter and give examples of where in the body adrenalin & noradrenalin carry out this function.

    A neurotransmitter is a chemical which is released from the presynaptic membrane. Its release is stimulated by the depolarisation of the membrane.
    Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind with receptors on the post synaptic neurone, opening sodium ion channels and causing depolarisation of the postsynaptic neurone.
    Neurotransmitters that release noradrenaline have been discovered in the iris of the eye, the gut wall

    4) What is radioligand binding? Why is this a useful technique in investigating how noradrenalin functions.

    This is when a radioactive "label" is attached to the drug molecules. It is used to trace the movement of the chemicals through the body by following the radiation emitted
    It is useful for finding out about noradrenaline, because where it can be tracked to where it has effects

    5) Explain our current understanding of the process of “Toughening up”.

    - Currently it is believed that toughening up is comes about because of a reduction in the number of b-adrenoreceptors because of the increased release of noradrenaline.
    - This seems to happen when there is a consistent exposure to some kinds of stress, (example) i.e. when rats are handled for a minute a day
    - The reduction in the number of b-adreno receptors means that less cyclic AMP is produced, because there are fewer receptors for noradrenaline to stimulate
    - This means that the effects of cyclic AMP are reduced (i.e. the synthesis of more neurotransmitters). This means that there is less of a response from the neurone

    6) Compare the processes of habituation and sensitisation which you investigated in the snail practical with “toughening up.”

    Habituation is the process by which an organism becomes less sensitive to a certain stimulus.
    This is because calcium ion channels becomes less sensitive to membrane depolarisation, so the membrane is less permeable to calcium ions
    So less neurotransmitter is released and the postsynaptic cell (a motor neurone) may not be stimulated to the threshold potential.
    Toughening up is a process by which an organisms appears to become less sensitive to stress
    This is because there is a reduction in b-adreno receptors making the neurones involved less sensitive to the effects of noradrenaline
    Sensitisation is when an organism is exposed to a strong stimulus which causes the release of seretonin from a relay neurone, into a synapse with a motor neurone. Seratonin is e excitatory
    This causes the organism to respond very strongly to any stimulus for a short while afterwards
    So toughening up is more similar to habituation, because both lead to a reduced response to a particular stimulus, where as sensitisation leads to a stronger response to a stimuli

    7) Discuss the experimental evidence on whether noradrenalin is the cause or cure for the effects of stress.

    One school of thought, based on animal research, has it that noradrenalin is responsible for the negative effects of stress. This was deduced from tests carried out using electrical excitation of neurones, and suggests that the reduction of b-adreno receptors is in carried out in order to reduce the effects of noradrenalin
    But when Phillipe Soubrie at INCERN used 6-hydroxy-dopamine to destroy noradrenaline secreting horemones, he found that animals were still susceptible to stress. This suggests that noradrenaline is not the only factor in causing the negative effects of stress
    And anti depressants do not work on a brain which does is bereft of noradrenaline
    So even though the data is so far inconclusive, it seems that noradrenaline is important in managing stress

    8) What are the pros & cons for treating stress with anti-depressant drugs?

    Pro:
    - Antidepressents can help people who have serious problems managing stress and anxiety. (1)
    - Drug treatments do no require staying or long periods of time being spent in hospitals/wards. (1)

    Cons:
    - They can have wide reaching effects in OTHER parts of the brain which can lead to undesirable side effects (1)
    - All drugs have negative side effects (1) Cannot get 2 marks for having this one and the above one.
    - They have been linked with suicide e.g. Prozac.
    - Some of them have addictive properties.
    Pain and Gender
    1) 1. Two frequently used pain killers kappa-opioids and ibuprofen should be labelled to show gender differences in their efficacy. Complete the labels below. Do the drug companies label their products in this way? Suggest reasons for your answer.







    Kappa-opiod lable should have: Effective for woman, high doses may make pain worse in men
    Ibuprofen: Effective inflammation and pain relief for men. May not have any effect in woman
    Reason: Drug companies do not do this. Doing this may reduce sales and so profits or
    Drug companies do not do this. There are no laws of legislations that can force them to

    2) List six other factors besides gender which are known to affect response to pain.
    - Diet
    - Age
    - Type of pain
    - Cause of pain
    - Time of day
    - Stress
    - Exercise or lack there of
    - Region of pain
    - Culture 3 marks for six, you need 2 to get one mark.
    3) Discuss the weaknesses in design of studies to investigate pain/ pain relief, both past and presents which have led to gender differences being overlooked/ ignored.

    Until 1993 drug companies were not required to include woman in their studies, until it was made law in the US. No such law exists in Britain, so studies here do not have to include women.
    The statistics from studies including both genders are often lumped together in a "statistical quagmire" which hides any underlying trends
    Pain is highly subjective and difficult to gauge
    Some studies are women only and are for drugs used, in for instance, breast cancer, which are still marketed towards women anyway Any of the three above.

    4) Outline the fluctuations in levels of oestrogen and progesterone in a woman (a) during the menstrual cycle, and (b) during pregnancy. (Use a diag. in each case)

    Progesterone levels increase during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, causing analgesia in preparation for labour
    A graph or diagram which exactly shows this (1)

    Oestrogen levels increase just before and during a period. Pain threshold plummets at the same time.
    Suitable diagram showing this (1)

    5) Outline Levine’s findings in his investigations of pain associated with inflammation/ tissue repair about the role of sex hormones.

    Levine found that giving testosterone to sterile females leads to masculine pain threshold (1)
    Levine found that giving oestrogen to castrated males leads to feminine pain threshold (1)
    Levine has found that the female hormone oestrogen "quenches" the production of bradykinins (1)
    Bradykinins are a potent anti inflammatory which help protect repairing tissues. Removing these removes the analgesia and anti inflammatory effects (1)

    6) What is the evidence that in women “the visceral organs talk to each other”?

    Dr. Gaimberardino noticed that women with kidney stones suffered searing pain of the urinary tract caused by stones is made worse by a condition called dysmenorrhoea (heavy periods)
    Clinics have also noticed in both men and woman that have pain in one area of the body due to chronic conditions can make pain in another area worse
    This, however seemed to be far worse for men than women
    This suggests that the visceral organs are more interlinked in woman than men, i.e., they "talk" to each other more

    7) Why should women (contrary to popular belief) not have a curry to start off labour?

    A study in neonatal rats has shown that the organic compound capsaicin which gives chillies their flavour seems to inhibit the analgesia which female rats normally get when pressure is applied to the cervix
    Dr. Beverly Whipple noticed that in Hispanic women, from the results of her study, that a diet rich in hot chilli peppers seems to lead to much more painful labour.
    Therefore, consuming chillies to induce labour may lead to much more painful birth
    You need to be able to link all the evidence together.

    8) How do neurosteroids in the brain affect pain processing?

    The metabolites (breakdown products), i.e. progesterone, or enzyme reactions with neurosteriods such as cholesteal can produce chemicals that appear to either inhibit or stimulate the brains way of processing pain
    The metabolites of progesterone seem to be inhibit the brain's processing of pain
    In mounting doses, neurosteriods can induce analgesia, act as anticonvulsants and even anaesthetics
    • Thread Starter
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    (Original post by Shining*)
    Can someone tell me whether this is correct:
    How a chemical could block pain and counteract the effect of analgesics?
    Mimick neurotransmitters
    Prevent neurotransmitter from binding with receptors on post synaptic membrane
    Inhibit enzymes that recycle neurotransmitters
    Block Ca2+ channels – preventing vesicles fusing with pre synaptic membrane and releasing neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft

    Thankyou very much
    I would say they don't mimic transmitters because in that case they'd function exactly like the transmitter.

    Binding to postsynaptic receptors and prevent depolarisation is one.

    Inhibit enzymes that synthesis transmitter could be one.

    Blocking Ca channels, yep.

    What about promoting increased reuptake of transmitter?
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    Thanks everyone!
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    Im gonna give this article a break..and answer some exam Qs.

    Way too tiring!
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    (Original post by Doughboy)
    I would say they don't mimic transmitters because in that case they'd function exactly like the transmitter.

    Binding to postsynaptic receptors and prevent depolarisation is one.

    Inhibit enzymes that synthesis transmitter could be one.

    Blocking Ca channels, yep.

    What about promoting increased reuptake of transmitter?

    Promote? Or prevent?
    This is talking about the effect of drugs on synapses right?
 
 
 
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