Turn on thread page Beta

Edexcel A2 Biology Unit 5 (6BIO5) - 22/06/2011- OFFICIAL THREAD ! watch

Announcements
    Offline

    17
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Did you revise AS stuff for the exam?
    Nah but luckily I remembered it.
    Offline

    10
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by PsyChris)
    i was going to ask, i read something about ATP synthase, do the protons H+ or the electron provide the energy to combine ADP and Pi to form ATP?or does this enzyme do this (or does it catalyse this reaction)?
    well the chemiosmotic theory is:
    H+ is pumped into the space between the mitchondrial membrane. This creates a concentration, electrochemical and pH gradient. The mitochondiral membrane is impermeable to H+ so the only way H+ can go to a lower concentration is via ATP synthase. When H+ leaves through ATP synthase, energy is generated to phosphorylate ADP
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Some questions I found from another thread:

    Questions with a *star* require careful consideration and thinking.


    1)Suggest two ways by which endurance can be enhanced.

    2)Based on your knowledge and Mantyranta's condition , describe the working of an anabolic steroid.

    3)Suggest how kidney failure or AIDS could lead to anemia.

    4)In 1989 , the biotech company Amgen began marketing Epogen,an injectable form of epo produced by recombinant bacteria.Describe the risk of using genetically modified organisms.

    5)"Doping is a part of the business cycle"
    Outline the ethics of using performance-enhancing drugs.

    6)*Blood and urine of athletes are routinely tested at every competition.Suggest why two samples are taken of each blood and urine?

    7)Charles Yesalis , an epidemiologist at Pennsylvania State university has interviewed more than a thousand athletes who have admitted to taking banned drugs.Give reasons to show whether this statement is reliable or unreliable.

    8)What is the risk involved in injecting epo in healthy individuals?

    9)*Explain the difference b/w correlation and causation.Use the data on page 3 to assess the relationship b/w using adenovirus and increase in muscle mass , to AAV's to determine the epo delivered to mice and monkeys.

    10)*With reference to page 4 , 'all forms of epo are produced by a single gene'.Explain how post transcriptional changes can give rise to more than one protein from a gene.

    11)Suggest the risks involved in IGF-1 gene therapy.

    12)Explain the problems encountered by scientists for administering IGF-1 therapy.

    13)*Describe the role of primary and secondary immune response's following IGF-1 gene injection in to the body.

    14)*"The stakes in modern sports are high both in prestige and in money".
    Which lines from the article support this idea.
    Page ________________________________ _____________________
    Lines___________________________ __________________________

    15)Describe an absolutist's and relativist's ethical position on the proposal to set a maximum total of RBC's count for athletes rather than measure EPO level.

    16)Outline the role of transcription factors in the control of gene expression.

    17)*How would a change in temperature effect the working of a proteosome.

    18)Explain the mechanism of actional potential with reference to para 1 on page 8.

    19)Describe the structure of a muscle fibre.

    20)Why is increase in muscle mass alone , not of great help to athletes?

    21)State two conditions in which using gene therapy for increasing muscle mass is advantageous other than sports.

    22)*Why is it easier for athletes to tamper the results of EPO testing?

    23)*Outline all the methods given in the article by which muscle performance can be enhanced referring to any ethicla and safety issues.

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...1580084&page=2

    Does anyone have a MS to go along with them?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Could someone pleeeeaasssee help me with question 2 a) i) from the jan 2011 paper about critical periods for flowering? It is probably really obvious as it is only 1 mark but I just don't understand the answer! Thanks in advance!
    Offline

    10
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Choca Mocha)
    Could someone pleeeeaasssee help me with question 2 a) i) from the jan 2011 paper about critical periods for flowering? It is probably really obvious as it is only 1 mark but I just don't understand the answer! Thanks in advance!
    The answer is 8 hours because the plant did not flower when exposed to anything less than 8 hours of darkness
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by AGM)
    Technically, it could be either.

    However we have been taught that generally an increase in heart rate is due to low pH and a decrease is due to high pressure.

    There are receptors for both pressure and pH. What we have been taught is that for exercise it will be the chemoreceptors. This is because during exercise, as you probably know CO2 levels rise causing pH to go down. This means more oxygen is needed for respiration so the heart pumps faster due to a nerve impulse from the sympathetic nerve.

    Post exercise it will most likely be responding to pressure. This is because CO2 levels will be lower due to the oxygen debt being repaid and then there will just be high pressure from a heart pumping harder.
    okk thanks - so if the question asks how does the heart respond to exercise then its the chemoreceptors and ph ect n then if the question asks how does ur heart respond at end of exercise then blood pressure and baroreceptos ectt...
    Thank ux
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Is this a mistake in the article?..

    Secret weapon: Page 3 paragraph 6
    Researchers at the biotech company Chiron in Emeryville, California, reported similar results in a 1998 trial that used AAVs to deliver the epo gene to two. After 10 weeks, their hematocrits had risen from 38 per cent and 40 per cent to 62 and 75 per cent, respectively, and stayed at those levels for the entire 28 weeks of the study.

    The bit in italics, ''two'' what?..
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Some questions I found from another thread:

    Questions with a *star* require careful consideration and thinking.


    1)Suggest two ways by which endurance can be enhanced.

    2)Based on your knowledge and Mantyranta's condition , describe the working of an anabolic steroid.

    3)Suggest how kidney failure or AIDS could lead to anemia.

    4)In 1989 , the biotech company Amgen began marketing Epogen,an injectable form of epo produced by recombinant bacteria.Describe the risk of using genetically modified organisms.

    5)"Doping is a part of the business cycle"
    Outline the ethics of using performance-enhancing drugs.

    6)*Blood and urine of athletes are routinely tested at every competition.Suggest why two samples are taken of each blood and urine?

    7)Charles Yesalis , an epidemiologist at Pennsylvania State university has interviewed more than a thousand athletes who have admitted to taking banned drugs.Give reasons to show whether this statement is reliable or unreliable.

    8)What is the risk involved in injecting epo in healthy individuals?

    9)*Explain the difference b/w correlation and causation.Use the data on page 3 to assess the relationship b/w using adenovirus and increase in muscle mass , to AAV's to determine the epo delivered to mice and monkeys.

    10)*With reference to page 4 , 'all forms of epo are produced by a single gene'.Explain how post transcriptional changes can give rise to more than one protein from a gene.

    11)Suggest the risks involved in IGF-1 gene therapy.

    12)Explain the problems encountered by scientists for administering IGF-1 therapy.

    13)*Describe the role of primary and secondary immune response's following IGF-1 gene injection in to the body.

    14)*"The stakes in modern sports are high both in prestige and in money".
    Which lines from the article support this idea.
    Page ________________________________ _____________________
    Lines___________________________ __________________________

    15)Describe an absolutist's and relativist's ethical position on the proposal to set a maximum total of RBC's count for athletes rather than measure EPO level.

    16)Outline the role of transcription factors in the control of gene expression.

    17)*How would a change in temperature effect the working of a proteosome.

    18)Explain the mechanism of actional potential with reference to para 1 on page 8.

    19)Describe the structure of a muscle fibre.

    20)Why is increase in muscle mass alone , not of great help to athletes?

    21)State two conditions in which using gene therapy for increasing muscle mass is advantageous other than sports.

    22)*Why is it easier for athletes to tamper the results of EPO testing?

    23)*Outline all the methods given in the article by which muscle performance can be enhanced referring to any ethicla and safety issues.

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...084&page=2

    Does anyone have a MS to go along with them?
    would they ever ask a question like 14??? i thought you can do the artcile without having read it, as in using ur knowledge form the topic, (dat is worrying becasue it so specific?)????
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Scientists believe that hard exercise, the kind that leaves you sore the next day, builds muscle by inducing microscopic damage to the muscle fibres. These “micro tears” are repaired by beefing up the fibres with extra proteins so they will be adapted to the exercise the next time. A protein called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is turned on by mechanical signals such as stretch or exercise overload, seems to play a role in this repair process. IGF-1 exists in at least five different forms, whose parts are spliced together in different ways. All the forms are produced by a single gene.

    Could someone explain the bit in bold please? I don't get what it means.. I thought genes were turned on by transcription factors (i.e. chemical stimulus). Thanks

    (Original post by PsyChris)
    would they ever ask a question like 14??? i thought you can do the artcile without having read it, as in using ur knowledge form the topic, (dat is worrying becasue it so specific?)????
    If I am honest I have no idea lol. I just copied those questions from another thread.

    There was a 7 mark question in a previous paper that asked you to list all the risk and benefits of a treatment that were listed in the article. So maybe, the could, don't know.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Could someone explain the bit in bold please? I don't get what it means.. I thought genes were turned on by transcription factors (i.e. chemical stimulus). Thanks
    You are absolutely right...

    byt
    you have to imagine the body as an intercommunicating organs rather than isolated cells... these cells are constantly in communication and any change can lead to the activation of certain chemicals...

    whether this be a mechanical signal or a chemical signal (like a hormone)... the true details are too complicated and probably not known as of yet...

    if you are interested, i found this from Goldspink's article:

    However, mechanical signals are known to influence gene expression in muscle (10) and in other musculoskeletal cell types, including fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    The mechanical signal would lead to the activation of specific transcription factors.... the mechanical signals would be identical to a hormone in that it leads to the activation of transcription factors.... we have just been taught that hormones are chemical signals that bind to the receptors etc. etc...... however, why not be a mechanical signal... or an optical signal? there has been recent work on optogenetics (bloody interesting).. light induces transcription factors and leads to mRNA synthesis....
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Scientists believe that hard exercise, the kind that leaves you sore the next day, builds muscle by inducing microscopic damage to the muscle fibres. These “micro tears” are repaired by beefing up the fibres with extra proteins so they will be adapted to the exercise the next time. A protein called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is turned on by mechanical signals such as stretch or exercise overload, seems to play a role in this repair process. IGF-1 exists in at least five different forms, whose parts are spliced together in different ways. All the forms are produced by a single gene.

    Could someone explain the bit in bold please? I don't get what it means.. I thought genes were turned on by transcription factors (i.e. chemical stimulus). Thanks



    If I am honest I have no idea lol. I just copied those questions from another thread.

    There was a 7 mark question in a previous paper that asked you to list all the risk and benefits of a treatment that were listed in the article. So maybe, the could, don't know.
    thanks. yeah im really unsure aswell, really starting to hate this article, i just dont see the point in it, and i feel like i dont want to waste time going over it when other topics need revising (it so long winded, and i cant stand the way its written, like when it mentions irrelavant stuff (95% of the time) like ur not gonna get arms like madonna just trough gene doping? grrrr
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by chemdweeb1234)
    You are absolutely right...

    byt
    you have to imagine the body as an intercommunicating organs rather than isolated cells... these cells are constantly in communication and any change can lead to the activation of certain chemicals...

    whether this be a mechanical signal or a chemical signal (like a hormone)... the true details are too complicated and probably not known as of yet...

    if you are interested, i found this from Goldspink's article:

    However, mechanical signals are known to influence gene expression in muscle (10) and in other musculoskeletal cell types, including fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    The mechanical signal would lead to the activation of specific transcription factors.... the mechanical signals would be identical to a hormone in that it leads to the activation of transcription factors.... we have just been taught that hormones are chemical signals that bind to the receptors etc. etc...... however, why not be a mechanical signal... or an optical signal? there has been recent work on optogenetics (bloody interesting).. light induces transcription factors and leads to mRNA synthesis....
    Ah yes thank you. Very well explained + rep

    So say they ask how is the protein IGF-1 turned on. Would just say environmental or mechanical signals such as stretch or exercise overload are detected by receptors which lead to transcription factors being activated... etc etc.?

    (Original post by PsyChris)
    thanks. yeah im really unsure aswell, really starting to hate this article, i just dont see the point in it, and i feel like i dont want to waste time going over it when other topics need revising (it so long winded, and i cant stand the way its written, like when it mentions irrelavant stuff (95% of the time) like ur not gonna get arms like madonna just trough gene doping? grrrr
    Yeah I really don't know what they may ask on this. I'm just going through it as we speak, and underlying and highlighting topics anything I think they could ask.

    Like for e.g. Page 6, paragraphs 1 and 2, I've made a note that they could ask how you look for viral DNA in an athlete as a method to catch cheaters. So it would involve biopsies and then analysing the cell for the viral DNA, as the virus when it infects the cell, incorporates it's DNA into the host cell's DNA. This probs won't come up, but it's edexcel, they seem to want you to 'apply' your knowledge a lot

    EDIT: Or like compare different methods mentioned in the article to detect gene doping?

    And haha it mentions Madonna?! - I guess I'm not upto that bit yet

    EDIT 2: hah just read it. at least there's a bit that made me smile a little when reading the article lol
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Ah yes thank you. Very well explained + rep

    So say they ask how is the protein IGF-1 turned on. Would just say environmental or mechanical signals such as stretch or exercise overload are detected by receptors which lead to transcription factors being activated... etc etc.?



    Yeah I really don't know what they may ask on this. I'm just going through it as we speak, and underlying and highlighting topics anything I think they could ask.

    Like for e.g. Page 6, paragraphs 1 and 2, I've made a note that they could ask how you look for viral DNA in an athlete as a method to catch cheaters. So it would involve biopsies and then analysing the cell for the viral DNA, as the virus when it infects the cell, incorporates it's DNA into the host cell's DNA. This probs won't come up, but it's edexcel, they seem to want you to 'apply' your knowledge a lot

    EDIT: Or like compare different methods mentioned in the article to detect gene doping?

    And haha it mentions Madonna?! - I guess I'm not upto that bit yet

    EDIT 2: hah just read it. at least it's there's that made me smile a little when reading the article lol
    good idea, might start doing that aswell, do you think they could ask you on anything mentioned in the article, as in something really insignifcant only mentioned in one pragraph (eg in one paragraph it says something about cardiac cycle or bloss vessel, so could it say describe the structure/function of arteries etc like from AS)
    and therefore are most question going to be based on the main topic of gene doping and transcitpion factors ? (do you have any clue from past paper)
    sorry if im not making sense!?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    How much detail do you think we need to go into on the kreb cycle. Must we go through all of it, or do we just say that ...

    Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound to produce a 6-carbon compound.
    This 6-Carbon compound then goes through a series of reactions which eventually regenerates the 4-Carbon compound.
    In the process, 2 molecules of CO2, 3 molecules of reduced NAD, 1 molecule of reduced FAD, and 1 molecule of ATP are produced.

    Would we have to go into detail on 'the series of reactions', or do you think this is ok.
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by PsyChris)
    good idea, might start doing that aswell, do you think they could ask you on anything mentioned in the article, as in something really insignifcant only mentioned in one pragraph (eg in one paragraph it says something about cardiac cycle or bloss vessel, so could it say describe the structure/function of arteries etc like from AS)
    and therefore are most question going to be based on the main topic of gene doping and transcitpion factors ? (do you have any clue from past paper)
    sorry if im not making sense!?
    I'd personally revise any AS stuff that the article mentions. Better safe than sorry IMO.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Adam9)
    How much detail do you think we need to go into on the kreb cycle. Must we go through all of it, or do we just say that ...

    Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound to produce a 6-carbon compound.
    This 6-Carbon compound then goes through a series of reactions which eventually regenerates the 4-Carbon compound.
    In the process, 2 molecules of CO2, 3 molecules of reduced NAD, 1 molecule of reduced FAD, and 1 molecule of ATP are produced.

    Would we have to go into detail on 'the series of reactions', or do you think this is ok.
    that should be fine ....
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Does anyone know what the synoptic is supposed to be like.

    If you remember in January (unit 4), there was nothing synoptic except for one 3-4 mark question on cellulose, and they called that paper synoptic.


    However, in this paper, there is a pre-release. Maybe they are going to ask synoptic stuff about that ... e.g. they mentioned atherosclerosis, so they may ask for the process.

    Does anyone know if they asked a lot of synoptic stuff on previous unit 5 papers, and also, was the synoptic stuff related to the pre-release.

    Thanks for your help. Good luck in the exam !!!!!!!
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    Could someone help me out here. Thanks

    Page 9, Paragraph 4

    While there are valid medical and space applications for anti-wasting drugs, as a safer alternative to steroids they will inevitably be hugely tempting for athletes too, not to mention the lazy as well.

    I really don't get the bold bit. Could someone explain the difference between ''anti-wasting'' drugs and ''steroids'' in the context of the article? Don't get this bit at all.

    It mentions ''steroid'' twice in the article, one above and the other on page 7, paragraph 2

    The use of anabolic steroids is being explored for some conditions. But these compounds have a huge range of effects on the body besides promoting muscle growth, some of them undesirable, and only appear to work well in conjunction with exercise. A specific treatment to prevent wasting until patients are well enough to get back on their feet, or until astronauts have arrived at their destination, would be ideal.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by InItToWinItGetIt?)
    Could someone help me out here. Thanks

    Page 9, Paragraph 4

    While there are valid medical and space applications for anti-wasting drugs, as a safer alternative to steroids they will inevitably be hugely tempting for athletes too, not to mention the lazy as well.

    I really don't get the bold bit. Could someone explain the difference between ''anti-wasting'' drugs and ''steroids'' in the context of the article? Don't get this bit at all.

    It mentions ''steroid'' twice in the article, one above and the other on page 7, paragraph 2

    The use of anabolic steroids is being explored for some conditions. But these compounds have a huge range of effects on the body besides promoting muscle growth, some of them undesirable, and only appear to work well in conjunction with exercise. A specific treatment to prevent wasting until patients are well enough to get back on their feet, or until astronauts have arrived at their destination, would be ideal.
    I still have not read the article (is that bad?), but i take it anti-wasting drugs simply maintain the muscle you already have, but steroids help to increase the developement of muscle. So one is maintaining muscle, and the other is increasing production.




    Also, have you done any unit 5 past papers ... if so, is it very synoptic, or is it just 1-2 random questions like the cellulose question back in jan 2011 for unit 4
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Adam9)
    I still have not read the article (is that bad?), but i take it anti-wasting drugs simply maintain the muscle you already have, but steroids help to increase the developement of muscle. So one is maintaining muscle, and the other is increasing production.

    Also, have you done any unit 5 past papers ... if so, is it very synoptic, or is it just 1-2 random questions like the cellulose question back in jan 2011 for unit 4
    Yeah that makes sense, I'm not thinking straight today! :mad:

    It depends on how much time you have till the exam. I just went through it today, but I have a Unit 4 exam for bio, and a Psychology exam the day before Unit 5.

    I haven't done any past papers for this unit yet. But from a quick scan of the June 2010 paper, it seems the synoptic stuff is saved for the article. I've attached it for you, if you want a look yourself.
    Attached Images
  1. File Type: pdf BIO UNIT 5 JUNE 10 QP.pdf (386.0 KB, 146 views)
 
 
 
Poll
Could you cope without Wifi?

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Write a reply...
Reply
Hide
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.