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    Can you please assist me with these questions:

    1) Explain in what way a content analysis is form of observation

    2) Describe two advanatages of conducting this kind of research

    3) How might observer bias affect the findings of a content analysis?

    4) A university department was given funding to investigate the stereotypes presented in children's books (age stereotypes, gender stereotypes, etc.). They were to compare books that children read today with those from 20 years ago too see how and if sterotypes had changed.

    a) Suggest three items that could be used as behavioural categories in this study

    b) Write operationalised definitions for these items

    c) How might you ensure that two researchers were using the behavioural categories in the same way

    5) Example of Qualitative Content Analysis

    A Finnish study considered the role of the family in adolescents' peer and school experiences. Joronen and Astedt - Kurki (2005) conducted semi - structured interviews with 19 adolescents aged 12 - 16, using questions such as 'What does your family know about your peers?' and 'How is your family involved in your school activities?'. These interviews produced 234 pages of notes which were all analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    1. All answers to the same question were placed together
    2. Each statement was compressed into a briefer statement and given an identifier code.
    3. These statements were compared with each other and categorised so that statements with similar content were placed together and a category (or theme) identified.
    4. The categories were grouped into larger units producing eight main categories, for example:
    • Enablement e.g. 'Yeah, ever since my childhood we've always had lots of kids over visiting.' (girl, 15 years)
    • Support e.g. 'They (family members) help if I have a test by asking questions.' (boy, 13 years)
    • Negligence e.g. 'My sister is not all interested in my friends.' (girl, 16 years)

    One of the conclusions drawn frim this study is that schools should pay more attention to the multiple relationships that determine an adolescent's behaviour.

    In what way is it a content analysis? In what way is it qualitative?
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