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    The AQA textbook goes beyond wordy here to vagueness and is impossible to pin down. I can't for the life of me work out the sequence of events here - give an already inarticulate teacher a strong accent and I'm lost. I'm only talking about response to chronic and acute stressors, not immune system, etc. My biggest confusions are:

    Is the reaction to the acute stressor the "sympathomedullary pathway" or the SAM system. Are these the same thing? Is one a constituent of the other?

    Is the hypothalamus involved in the acute response? When looking it up online it seemed like it was but it's not mentioned in the textbook.

    What is the difference in what adrenaline and noradrenaline do? The text book merely says adrenaline prepares for the fight-or-flight response.

    What exactly counts as a chronic stressor here? The book uses a stressful job as an example, but this seems like a very primitive, short-term physiological response and doesn't seem to suit what is such a long-term problem.

    Do these systems work at the same time? Does it go acute>chronic response if the problem persists? Or are the chronic stressors of a different nature and the response is triggered without the one for the acute?

    Can someone also explain to me about feedback? It seems the systems overlap here and I don't grasp how, where and when.


    If anyone has a thorough understanding of this and can tell me where I'm wrong, that'd be really helpful.
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    (Original post by Highly Sammable)
    The AQA textbook goes beyond wordy here to vagueness and is impossible to pin down. I can't for the life of me work out the sequence of events here - give an already inarticulate teacher a strong accent and I'm lost. I'm only talking about response to chronic and acute stressors, not immune system, etc. My biggest confusions are:

    Is the reaction to the acute stressor the "sympathomedullary pathway" or the SAM system. Are these the same thing? Is one a constituent of the other?

    Is the hypothalamus involved in the acute response? When looking it up online it seemed like it was but it's not mentioned in the textbook.

    What is the difference in what adrenaline and noradrenaline do? The text book merely says adrenaline prepares for the fight-or-flight response.

    What exactly counts as a chronic stressor here? The book uses a stressful job as an example, but this seems like a very primitive, short-term physiological response and doesn't seem to suit what is such a long-term problem.

    Do these systems work at the same time? Does it go acute>chronic response if the problem persists? Or are the chronic stressors of a different nature and the response is triggered without the one for the acute?

    Can someone also explain to me about feedback? It seems the systems overlap here and I don't grasp how, where and when.

    If anyone has a thorough understanding of this and can tell me where I'm wrong, that'd be really helpful.
    Don't know all of these, but for some:

    - Noradrenaline and adrenaline both work on alpha and beta adrenoceptors - the difference is that they have different affinities/potencies on some. For example, adrenaline is more potent on beta, while noradrenaline is more potent on alpha1. Adrenoceptors are pretty much everywhere, so they both do loads of things. They will both do roughly the same things - it is more that adrenaline does more beta action while noradrenaline does more alpha action (vasoconstriction is via alpha receptors so noradrenaline does this more potently, whereas increased heart rate and contractility is via beta receptors so adrenaline does this more potently, and so on).

    - It is not necessarily that chronic stressors have an entirely different action: the idea is that the stress is prolonged and persistent, and so keeps causing the stress response. This does, of course, lead to different long term changes, but the textbook is right in giving things like that as a chronic stressor (another would be marital problems).

    In general, I think the confusion is between acute and chronic (which generally, in this instance, refer to the stressor) and the short term reaction and the resistance reaction (which refer to short term and long term stress reactions - but even this resistance reaction isn't particularly long).

    I would imagine the hypothalamus is involved as it regulates the autonomic nervous system. I'd be very surprised if it wasn't involved in the short term response.

    RE: sympathomedullary: if it's referring to the adrenal medulla, then the sympathomedullary pathway is presumably the sympathetic innervation from the origin of the sympathetic system (in the hypothalamus) to the adrenal medulla. The SAM system would be the name of the system that this forms.
 
 
 
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