Psychology A Unit 3 AQA - 17th June 2011 Watch

magicalyoghurt
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(Original post by Becksiee26)
Guys, you all seem SO certain its going to Evolutionary for Eating and Group Display for Aggression... I dont know whether to be reassured or nervous about this? :L

Anybody got any typed up preparation essays of the above?
andd Anyone got any predictions for Cognitive Development?

I would much rather it was biological explanations for aggression !
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sweet&petitee
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(Original post by magicalyoghurt)
I would much rather it was biological explanations for aggression !
i totally agree! there's so much to talk about in comparison to group displays!
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dr.phalange
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(Original post by fiona_1508)
Sorry if you're question has already been answered...
but AO2 for Restraint Theory (which includes the Boundary Model I think)...

Wardle and Beale- investigated whether restrained eating results in over-eating. Lab experiment assessing food intakes and 4 and 6 weeks of 27 obese women. 3 conditions- diet, exercise and control. Found that those in the diet group ate more, supporting the causal link between restrained eating and overeating.
Strengths- experimental so can manipulate variables and can conclude causation and is random allocation so groups should be the same except for the independent variable.
Weaknesses- only 9 in each sample so small sample therefore not generalisable, ptps may have an alternative agenda i.e. continue using weight loss methods they used prior to study and as its a lab setting it lacks ecological validity and ptps may respond to demand characteristics.

Also you can say that it explains binge-eating, but not the selve staving and successful weight loss of anorexics and how vegetarians never eat meat, if be attempting not to eat something causes you to eat it.
Also you could talk about most research being gender biased- mainly on women. also stuff about free will vs determinism.
Sorry for the rather drawn out answer- hope it helps.
You are an absolute star! Thank you :-)!
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teaandcoffee
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Sleep revision makes me so.. sleepy and tired

Ah well, onto evolutionary and restoration theories on sleep now. Anyone else a bit iffy with evolutionary explanations? They're just so silly... Ah well.
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biology12345
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Hi could anyone on here tell me what the question were in january for this unit ?

Topics- Agression, Biological rhythms, and Relationships

thanks
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Joseanne16
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(Original post by magicalyoghurt)
I would much rather it was biological explanations for aggression !
I have an essay of evolutionary explanations of food preference

It got me full marks:
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monkajanik
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(Original post by biology12345)
Hi could anyone on here tell me what the question were in january for this unit ?

Topics- Agression, Biological rhythms, and Relationships

thanks
Here's a list of all the past questions for my topics (in case anyone wants to know)
BIO RHYTHMS & SLEEP
Jan 11 role of endogenous pacemakers
Jun 10 lifespan changes in sleep and explanations for functions of sleep
Jan 10 circadian rhythms and explanations for sleep disorders
(this year I'm thinking disrupting rhythms/factors influencing insomnia/nature of sleep)

RELATIONSHIPS
Jan 11 formation of relationships
Jun 10 relationships in different cultures
Jan 10 evolutionary approach to parental investment
(maybe sexual selection/influence of early and/or adolescent exp. on adult relationships)

AGGRESSION
Jan 11 evolutionary explanations of human aggression
Jun 10 genetic factors and social explanations of aggression
Jan 10 explanations of institutional aggression
(group display/neural & hormonal mechanisms?)
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biology12345
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(Original post by monkajanik)
Here's a list of all the past questions for my topics (in case anyone wants to know)
BIO RHYTHMS & SLEEP
Jan 11 role of endogenous pacemakers
Jun 10 lifespan changes in sleep and explanations for functions of sleep
Jan 10 circadian rhythms and explanations for sleep disorders
(this year I'm thinking disrupting rhythms/factors influencing insomnia/nature of sleep)

RELATIONSHIPS
Jan 11 formation of relationships
Jun 10 relationships in different cultures
Jan 10 evolutionary approach to parental investment
(maybe sexual selection/influence of early and/or adolescent exp. on adult relationships)

AGGRESSION
Jan 11 evolutionary explanations of human aggression
Jun 10 genetic factors and social explanations of aggression
Jan 10 explanations of institutional aggression
(group display/neural & hormonal mechanisms?)
Thanks that awesome, im hoping that consequences to disruption comes up got that covered!
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magicalyoghurt
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I dislike bio rhythms the most Hoping its like insomnia or maybe describe and evaluate one or more rhythm.
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magicalyoghurt
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(Original post by teaandcoffee)
Sleep revision makes me so.. sleepy and tired

Ah well, onto evolutionary and restoration theories on sleep now. Anyone else a bit iffy with evolutionary explanations? They're just so silly... Ah well.
Yes they are iffy! :L I always get told you have to make more reference to evolutionary stuff but it makes no sense. Like with relationships I doubt that I look for a partner because he has resources so that my offspring and me can continue to survive I suppose it'll make you remember the criticism that evolutionary explanations may not apply to modern society where things have changed a lot !! And I would hope so too
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Kerry92
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(Original post by Joseanne16)
I have an essay of evolutionary explanations of food preference

It got me full marks:
your essay is amazing! so helpful
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TGBuble
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(Original post by magicalyoghurt)
I would much rather it was biological explanations for aggression !
I agree! Cannot fathom Group Display at all
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xCHiiBiEverlastingx
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(Original post by Noodlzzz)
Voila (bio = bio rhythms & sleep)
Can I just say how much I love you?! It's a shame you didn't do gender too.

Barely revised Psych as I have English up first... probably dug myself into a hole right there

So I gather you're taking PSYA4 now then (or have already)?
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cookiee
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(Original post by Joseanne16)
I have an essay of evolutionary explanations of food preference

It got me full marks:
Could you please possibly copy and paste it into a comment as I can't seem to open it would really help as I'm not feeling too confident about eating!
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Noodlzzz
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(Original post by xCHiiBiEverlastingx)
Can I just say how much I love you?! It's a shame you didn't do gender too.

Barely revised Psych as I have English up first... probably dug myself into a hole right there

So I gather you're taking PSYA4 now then (or have already)?
Long time! No probs

PSYA4 on monday, the joys. Best of luck with yours
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Joseanne16
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The essay on a whole is a bit long, but in an exam it would be difficult to remember everything anyway, this essay got me 25/25

Discuss the evolutionary explanation of food preferences (25 marks) 9+16

Evolutionary psychologists argue that all behaviour can be analysed and understood as having been adaptive and functional in some way in the past. The goal of any evolutionary psychologist is to discover the adaptive function of a particular behaviour, thus we need to consider the problems faced by our distant hunter-gatherer ancestors to discover why the food preferences that people have today evolved in the first place.
One problem that our ancestors faced was food shortages. Food was not as plentiful as it is nowadays so our surviving ancestors would have been those who ate high calorie foods as this would have been retained for future periods of food scarcity. This problem has been argued to have created our preference for innutritious foods which are rich in calories such as McDonalds. However, as nowadays people have less need for these high calorie foods due to the vast food availability, we still seem to retain this preference.
Babies’ innate preference for sweet foods can also be explained in evolutionary terms. The preference for sweet flavours would encourage babies to eat fruit with natural fructose. As this is high in calories, it would provide the baby with the much needed energy. Evidence for this preference comes from Desor et al (1973), who using facial expressions and sucking behaviour as an index of preference, found that babies prefer sweet tasting substances.
Furthermore, people tend to enjoy consuming salty flavours. Although this is less easy to explain due to the human body having little need for additional salt, as it is difficult to obtain in the wild this flavour may have encouraged people to eat meat. Beauchamp (1987) found that at the age of 2 years, children reject foods that to not contain the expected amount of saltiness, showing how humans do possess an innate preference for salt.
The additional preference for the preference of meat is that it is full of nutrients and provides the catalyst for the growth of the brain. Milton (2008) proposed that it is unlikely that early humans could have secured enough nutrients from a vegetarian diet to evolve into the active and intelligent creatures that they have become today from a vegetarian diet.
Finally, the general dislike for bitter foods and food neophobia can be explained because avoiding they would have helped to protect people from eating food that was poisonous, and it would be useful for children who would then not try and eat wild berries that could be dangerous.
However, the evolutionary explanation to food preferences had been criticised both positively and negatively. Firstly, in support of the approach, it can explain why people have a love for chocolate and fast foods even thought they are not required nor healthy. This could explain why obesity levels have risen so rapidly in the last 50 years. There is a greater availability of food, yet our preferences are still of the time when food was a much more limited selection.
Birch and Marlin (1992) offer support for the belief that children are neophobic. Researchers exposed two year olds to new foods for a period of six weeks and in this period the infants showed an increased preference for that food. A minimum of 8-10 weeks was needed in order to reverse the nephobia into a preference.
However, the evolutionary explanation to food preference is very deterministic. From the explanation we are told that our preferences are pre-determined, we just inherit those that were useful for the survival of our ancestors. Yet, this does not seem to always be the case. Should we not be able to exert any free will over our food preferences, then it does not make sense that humans on a whole can for example decide to eat a healthy balanced diet, whereas others refuse to eat anything but junk food. This leads us to believe that the evolutionary explanation is reductionist because it reduces the many social and complex factors which influence our preferences for certain foods into simply, the benefits that certain food preferences would have had for our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago. It ignores other factors such as the culture we are brought up in, or family and other social pressures. For example, children who grow up in India usually prefer spicy foods in comparison to those from Japan who may prefer fish based dishes. This supports the behaviourist approach, that we can learn to like foods because of our upbringing (nurture), not just that our preferences are programmed within us from birth (nature) as the evolutionary explanation suggests.
Another problem with the evolutionary explanation is that it is difficult to falsify, thus not a scientific explanation. Although the concept of adaptation can be applied to many behaviours, for example, eating, forming relationships, aggression it is difficult to demonstrate empirically. This means that we cannot be sure that evolution was the cause of human’s current preferences because although there is evidence from fossils showing that humans would have had a particularly meaty diet, scientific research is limited as our ancestors have now died out. However, a common way of testing an evolutionary hypothesis is through comparison with a different species e.g. chimpanzees who face similar adaptive problems today. Yet, the fact that humans and animals are different, there are problems regarding how accurate this explanation of food preferences can be generalised to humans.
Overall, it seems that there are many good arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists in an attempt to explain modern-day food preferences, by those problems which our hunter-gatherer ancestors faced. However, it does seem likely that our preferences may have been shaped by a number of factors, not just evolution alone.
Last edited by Joseanne16; 7 years ago
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Joseanne16
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(Original post by cookiee)
Could you please possibly copy and paste it into a comment as I can't seem to open it would really help as I'm not feeling too confident about eating!
Did it in the post above
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Joseanne16
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(Original post by dr.phalange)
Does anyone have any decent A02/3 points for The Boundary Model on failures of dieting? I have loads of A01 and NO A02
Thank you in advance!
I have some notes here on that whole section, the first bit goes on a bit but its just an introduction really, basically start from the first part that says AO1

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Joseanne16
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(Original post by Kerry92)
your essay is amazing! so helpful
Npz glad to help!
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sweet&petitee
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(Original post by Joseanne16)
The essay on a whole is a bit long, but in an exam it would be difficult to remember everything anyway, this essay got me 25/25

Discuss the evolutionary explanation of food preferences (25 marks) 9+16
This is such a good essay! Did you write this in exam conditions btw (ie in 30 minutes?)
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