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    (Original post by Becksiee26)
    It makes sense to an extent loool but i dont know half your studies hehe
    What about mentioning Sporting Events and Religiou Rituals( Cost Signalling Hypothesis) ?

    Thank you for the help again tho
    oh yeh, sports events are included in xenophobia lol :P
    evans et al analysed data from 40 football matches that were played in continential europe involving england club sids & national sides found suggested a greater degree of disorder was associated with the national side
    matthews et al found that as black community increased in southern states, whites support for black vote decreased & whites were more likely to engage in behaviours to minimise black power
    clark et al found that the percentage of afro-brazilians in brazil was negatively correlated with incidents of lynch-mob violence


    you dont do relationships do you? might have to ask a favour involving an essay :P
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    My ATTEMPT at the beginning of a group display essay before i got fustrated :P

    Outline and Evaluate Group Display as an adaptive response (9+16)

    Freud attempted to explain group displays of aggression as a product of a collaboration or merging minds between group members. This collaboration of the same opinions, combined with the enthusiasm of being in a group would dominate each individuals regular inhibitions; consequently performing actions that would usually be against their will. However, although Freud provided a basis for which other researchers could elaborate and explore further, much of his own work was unfalsifiable, weakening its validity.

    However, demonstrating group displays of aggression and overriding the individuals regular inhibitions may not be as bad as it may appear, as it is actually quite adaptive. In terms of Evolution, natural selection would favour genes that make group members more cooperative; the helping of each other would create a rebound effect of helping to survive. War, for example, demonstrates the collaboration or merging of minds, as each individuals set goal is to attack the enemy and protect the in group. Because of this, one group would gain status over the other which gives them vital resources, I.e. land or water.

    This can be further demonstrated in terms of The Power Threat Hypothesis (Blabock) which suggests that when the majority of a group are poised with a threat from the minority, they would permit violence against the minority. This helps to explain Lynching as an adaptive response, as the protection of own in group members demonstrates a connection to the group. The opposition are then dehumanised by the majority, making them feel worthless and therefore not worthy of moral consideration.

    This explanation can also be explained in terms of sport events, where individuals loose their moral values and imitate the behaviour displayed by other fans in their ‘group’. For example at a football watch, hooligans would demonstrate aggressive behaviour towards fans of the other team as an attempt to dehumanise them.


    However LeBon provides an alternative explanation, attempting to explain group aggression in terms of contagion, group members fall under the ‘disease’ of a collective mind; consequently internalising the behaviour and opinions demonstrated by the group. This combined with anonymity within the group; the distortion of not being recognised as an individual is likely to cause the individual to loose control and ultimately act in a way that goes against personal or social norms.
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    my teacher just said that you can only use reductionism when talking about a biological approach, is this right?
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    (Original post by sweet&petitee)
    oh yeh, sports events are included in xenophobia lol :P
    evans et al analysed data from 40 football matches that were played in continential europe involving england club sids & national sides found suggested a greater degree of disorder was associated with the national side
    matthews et al found that as black community increased in southern states, whites support for black vote decreased & whites were more likely to engage in behaviours to minimise black power
    clark et al found that the percentage of afro-brazilians in brazil was negatively correlated with incidents of lynch-mob violence


    you dont do relationships do you? might have to ask a favour involving an essay :P
    oooh thank you!

    and afraid not "/ I do Cognition and Development, Eating and this :P x
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    (Original post by kittyminkyx)
    my teacher just said that you can only use reductionism when talking about a biological approach, is this right?
    It is the most reductionist approach, however, it's not limited just to biological. Classical behaviorism is also as it reduces everything to the stimulus-response level!
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    Ao3 points for sport events and lynch mobs?
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    (Original post by kittyminkyx)
    my teacher just said that you can only use reductionism when talking about a biological approach, is this right?
    This might help, it was in the Jun 10 exam report...

    This was regularly used to refer to approaches that focused on a single model or explanation, such as cognitive, psychoanalytic, evolutionary or behavioural. Such approaches may be criticised as narrow or limited, but they are not necessarily reductionist. The term ‘reductionism’ came from biology, and refers to explanations at the lowest and most detailed level; for instance, studying the functions of the liver by studying individual liver cells, or the functions of the brain by examining individual neurons. In psychology, the term is most appropriately applied to biological explanations (eg genetics, neurotransmitters, hormones) of complex human behaviours such as schizophrenia, eating disorders and aggression. Such reductionist explanations can be legitimately criticised as ignoring psychological, social and cultural factors. However, the social learning theory of aggression or anorexia nervosa is not reductionist because it ignores genetic factors; it is narrow or limited.

    Other forms of reductionism in psychology include behaviourism and the way it reduces complex behaviours to simple learning principles, and methodological reductionism, in which the scientific approach requires some complex behaviours to be reduced to simple variables that can be controlled and investigated. Wherever it is used, candidates need to show a clear understanding of its meaning for ‘reductionism’ to earn marks.
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    PS Helper
    Can anyone help me with Ultradian, Infradian rhythms and the evolutionary functions of sleep please?
    The evolutionary functions of sleep get me so confused.


    Thanks!


    Also, what would anyone regard as A03 please? I understand that you have your point, explain it, give evidence, but would you oppose it and do IDA to get A03?
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    if we're asked about exogenous zeitgebers in biological rhythms as a 25 marker, what do we write about because there doesn't seem to be enough to write?
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    (Original post by Becksiee26)
    CAN. NOT. DO. AN ESSAY.ON. GROUP.DISPLAY.


    feeling really stressed.

    Anyone got a PLAN?
    I feel I have TOO much to write about and dont know how to put it across.. "/
    got a plan from teacher, will post later and quote you
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    (Original post by sillysal)
    if we're asked about exogenous zeitgebers in biological rhythms as a 25 marker, what do we write about because there doesn't seem to be enough to write?

    Id do boivin and light (entrained them using different light levels social cues and how they used to be seen as main zietgeiber, eating at certain times entrains certain rhythms. Temperature in hibernation or decidious trees.

    Dunno if that helps hope it does
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    (Original post by lizolove)
    Also, what would anyone regard as A03 please? I understand that you have your point, explain it, give evidence, but would you oppose it and do IDA to get A03?

    i cant help you with sleep cause i dont do it, but A03 is methodological evaluation, so validity etc can get you those A03 (dont panic about using a lot of methodological evaluation, itll carry over to A02 once youve hit the 4 mark threshold). IDA is counted as A02
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    (Original post by themanwhoishere)
    Id do boivin and light (entrained them using different light levels social cues and how they used to be seen as main zietgeiber, eating at certain times entrains certain rhythms. Temperature in hibernation or decidious trees.

    Dunno if that helps hope it does
    yes that helped a lot, thankyou!
    any predictions for sleep? I think disrupting bio rhythms seeing as that's the only one that hasn't been asked about before
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    (Original post by kittyminkyx)
    my teacher just said that you can only use reductionism when talking about a biological approach, is this right?
    I wouldnt have thought so. There are many theories from all approaches that attempt to simplify a complex series of processes into one simple one. Any synthesis of different approaches ie idea that insomnia may be due to neural and external reasons, would be a strength of a particular topic.
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    (Original post by sweet&petitee)
    This might help, it was in the Jun 10 exam report...

    This was regularly used to refer to approaches that focused on a single model or explanation, such as cognitive, psychoanalytic, evolutionary or behavioural. Such approaches may be criticised as narrow or limited, but they are not necessarily reductionist. The term ‘reductionism’ came from biology, and refers to explanations at the lowest and most detailed level; for instance, studying the functions of the liver by studying individual liver cells, or the functions of the brain by examining individual neurons. In psychology, the term is most appropriately applied to biological explanations (eg genetics, neurotransmitters, hormones) of complex human behaviours such as schizophrenia, eating disorders and aggression. Such reductionist explanations can be legitimately criticised as ignoring psychological, social and cultural factors. However, the social learning theory of aggression or anorexia nervosa is not reductionist because it ignores genetic factors; it is narrow or limited.

    Other forms of reductionism in psychology include behaviourism and the way it reduces complex behaviours to simple learning principles, and methodological reductionism, in which the scientific approach requires some complex behaviours to be reduced to simple variables that can be controlled and investigated. Wherever it is used, candidates need to show a clear understanding of its meaning for ‘reductionism’ to earn marks.
    ahh thank you
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    Just need to get this clear lol
    R cognitive approaches NATURE or NURTURE or BOTH?
    Most cognitive approaches have stages which imply a biological mechanism thou the speed of the development is a reult of nature --- so cognitive is nature and nurter??
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    (Original post by triangle_eyes)
    Does anyone have a list of possible essay questions for Relationships/Eating Behaviour please?

    I'm so stupid. WHY HAVE I LEFT MYSELF 2 DAYS TO REVISE.
    lol same ere ive pretty much got a whole bunch of essays for relationships an eating from www.psychexchange.co.uk ull av to sign up though, so im pretty much memorizin wich ain goin well
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    (Original post by Noodlzzz)
    Serious love for some essays if that's ok!
    No problem, I've got exams tomorrow and the day after though (eek) so I'll send them Friday/ Saturday if that's ok. They're not full-markers like Miss Joseanne's but they're not, like, totally atrocious either
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    (Original post by xCHiiBiEverlastingx)
    No problem, I've got exams tomorrow and the day after though (eek) so I'll send them Friday/ Saturday if that's ok. They're not full-markers like Miss Joseanne's but they're not, like, totally atrocious either
    Aha sounds awesome thank you
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    (Original post by sillysal)
    if we're asked about exogenous zeitgebers in biological rhythms as a 25 marker, what do we write about because there doesn't seem to be enough to write?
    Here you go. Got 23/25 for it
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: docx Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers in the sleep.docx (16.5 KB, 4135 views)
 
 
 
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