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    For relationships, do we need to know about scent, fidelity waist-hip ratio etc?
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    you dont have to mention names of the people who did the studies do you? it just showing off isnt it?
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    (Original post by hobbit619)
    you dont have to mention names of the people who did the studies do you? it just showing off isnt it?
    Yeah, but it sounds better to say "Horne found that..." rather than "It was found.." every time you want to mention a research or crisitcism. But yeah, you dont have to know the names, you're not loosing any marks for not mentioning.
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    (Original post by hobbit619)
    you dont have to mention names of the people who did the studies do you? it just showing off isnt it?
    It helps and it shows a better understanding of the subject however it doesn't really gain you any marks and is merely the 'icing on the cake' TBH.
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    (Original post by jammie276)
    It helps and it shows a better understanding of the subject however it doesn't really gain you any marks and is merely the 'icing on the cake' TBH.
    ice the cake real good for extra points
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    Can anyone give a essay structure or layout for sleep disorder explanations of insomnia?
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    im doing perception, agression and gender

    feel free to ask any questions about any of them
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    can someone please help me understand how many marks this paragraph will get me in terms of AO1 and AO2. thanks:

    In this experiment Zimbardo created a prison environment in an university basement where students dressed up as guards and prisoners and recreated typical prison life. Once again he found evidence to support his theory of anonymity. Interestingly he found that when psychologically stable students imitated prison guards they became violent and abusive. This supports the anonymity theory as the students were clearly not aggressive before the study but when transformed into guards dressed up in guard uniforms and glasses to avoid eye contact, a deindividuated state, they did behave in that way.
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    (Original post by jammie276)
    It helps and it shows a better understanding of the subject however it doesn't really gain you any marks and is merely the 'icing on the cake' TBH.
    THANK ****
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    (Original post by Indian_Prince)
    im doing perception, agression and gender

    feel free to ask any questions about any of them
    Yh in gender can you explain to me the biosocial theories in gender development? Would be a real help as this is my weakest area.
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    (Original post by Finolarose)
    ahhh starting to freak out, completely unable to concentrate today!!

    im thinking for eating behaviour: evolutionary explanations for food preferences and maybee something to do with eating disorders will come up
    aggression: neural/hormonal mechanism or group displays of aggression
    relationships: maintanence/breakdown, sexual selection or early experiences

    what do you guys reckon? has anyone got a essay plan i could have a look at for the neural/hormonal mechanisms or group displays for aggression?

    ahhh REALLLLLY FREAKING OUT NOWWWWWW!!


    Heres some a plan for Neural/hormonal mechanisms...

    *Biological approach explains that aggression is due to imbalances in hormones (cortisol & testosterone) and neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine)

    *Neurotransmitters
    - Serotonin: aggression is caused by Low levels of serotonin- supported by
    :Brown et al - low waste product of sertnin in Cerebrospinal fluid in aggressive ppl.
    Mann et al - altered sertonin levels in participants giving them a hostility and aggression questionnaire before and after.. he found that aggression increased in men but not women. Gender bias (alpha bias)
    Alcohols relationship with aggression may be explained by this as alcohol depletes serotonin.. thus causing aggression.
    Alternative explanation: The number of serotonin receptors increases and this causes aggression.
    Support: suicide victims, those with more receptors had a more violent death.. might wanna raise the point if suicide is really aggression cuz its self directed and not at others..

    Dopamine in high levels causes aggression.
    Support:
    Dopamine antogonists have helped to stop aggression in people.
    However, relationship of dopamine and aggression may be opposite way round- aggression causes dopamine.. this is because dopamine has a rewarding effect and so aggression is done to experience it.
    Research is limited for dopamine because of its role in allowing movement, - by lowering levels of dopamine it makes it difficult to move, so we dont know for example in studies with rats whether they are not being aggressive because of aggression decreasing or because they cant move.

    Ferrari et al (support for both sertonin and dopmine):
    Rats made to fight everyday for 10 days at a particular time. researchers measured ser and dop levels on 11th day at that time and found they had risen without a fight scenario- therefore environmental changes can make us develop aggression in this way.


    Hormones:

    Testosterone: Makes aggression more likely, higher amount doesnt mean more aggression
    Book et al: meta analysis- low positive correlation between testosterone and aggression
    Evidence is a bit unclear however:

    Keus & rose- found no significant difference of aggression between fighting and nonfighting prisoners.
    Bain et al- also found no significant difference of aggression between men who commited burglary and those who committed murder.
    Gender bias?

    Cortisol:
    low cortisol causes aggression
    support: Mcburnett et al -4 year longitudinal study of boys aged 7-12 who had been taken to clinics for behaviour probelms. researchers took cortisol measurements in 2nd and 4th year of study and found that those who had lowest cortisol were more aggressive by 3 times than those with fluctuating cortisol levels.
    Explanation why low cortison causes aggression
    *Low cortisol arousal is due to Low ANS arousal, which is unpleasant for the body,therefore aggression is done to arouse ANS.
    *Second explanation: popma et al: cortisol has a resolving role for aggression, where cortison inhibits aggression, so therefore, low cortisol= no inhibition of aggression.
    support: in a study of overt aggression, postive correlation was found for testosterone and low cortisol but no such relationship for high cortisol and aggresstion
    Biollogical approach so:
    Reductionist - we arent controlled by electrical impulses and chemicals alone. doesnt take into account, thoughts, culture, environment, experience etc also influencing us. Doesnt take individual differences or gender differences, for e.g mann et al study for serotonin mentioned above. Approach can be seen as Deterministic too.

    Treatments take a 'one size fits all' approach, not considering underlying problems which can differ in individuals like upbringing and environment.

    Thats all for Neural/hormonal explanations.. hope it helps lol
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    (Original post by safwaansh)
    can someone please help me understand how many marks this paragraph will get me in terms of AO1 and AO2. thanks:

    In this experiment Zimbardo created a prison environment in an university basement where students dressed up as guards and prisoners and recreated typical prison life. Once again he found evidence to support his theory of anonymity. Interestingly he found that when psychologically stable students imitated prison guards they became violent and abusive. This supports the anonymity theory as the students were clearly not aggressive before the study but when transformed into guards dressed up in guard uniforms and glasses to avoid eye contact, a deindividuated state, they did behave in that way.
    It's ok except if it's a 25 mark question your answering you might want to include an A03 point.
    Also Zimbardo was trying to support deindividuation not anonymity, anonymity is simply a factor in why we deindividuate.
    A good study to use for anonymity is were children had increased levels of aggresion when playing handball if they wore uniforms over if they wore normal clothes, this shows that becoming anonymous seems to lower our behavioural restraints and is a key factor in why deindividuation may occur.

    And for the amount of marks that paragraph would get I honestly don't have a clue really, I would say it would gain 1-2 marks for A01 and 1 for A02.
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    Does anyone have anything for Eating Behaviours please?
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    (Original post by Indian_Prince)
    im doing perception, agression and gender

    feel free to ask any questions about any of them
    WHAT TOPICS ARE LIKELY TO COME UP?!?!?!? ISIT WORTH REVISING GENDER SCHEMA AND BIOSOCIAL???:eek:
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    Does anyone know what the likely questions are for Eating Behaviour, Aggression and Relationships are?

    Everything's blurring into one in my brain and I'm freaking out majorly :'(
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    (Original post by wongles)
    WHAT TOPICS ARE LIKELY TO COME UP?!?!?!? ISIT WORTH REVISING GENDER SCHEMA AND BIOSOCIAL???:eek:
    You can have an informed guess on what questions may crop up but really your gambling with your exam as no one really knows. As much as I love poker and gambling this is not a thing I would take that kind of risk on.
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    (Original post by jammie276)
    It's ok except if it's a 25 mark question your answering you might want to include an A03 point.
    Also Zimbardo was trying to support deindividuation not anonymity, anonymity is simply a factor in why we deindividuate.
    A good study to use for anonymity is were children had increased levels of aggresion when playing handball if they wore uniforms over if they wore normal clothes, this shows that becoming anonymous seems to lower our behavioural restraints and is a key factor in why deindividuation may occur.

    And for the amount of marks that paragraph would get I honestly don't have a clue really, I would say it would gain 1-2 marks for A01 and 1 for A02.
    ok thanks. what do you think i need to add to get more AO2 marks?
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    (Original post by jammie276)
    Yh in gender can you explain to me the biosocial theories in gender development? Would be a real help as this is my weakest area.
    havent revised that bit yet but il give it a go

    so basicly the biosocial approach was made because people were only picking one side, "nature" or "nurture", and so this approach was made to show that both nature and nurture can have an affect on gender develoment. so you could say that it takes into account biological factors and it also takes into account social factors. the approach explains the the interection between biological factors and social factors can influence a persons gender identity. obviously this would be a positive point in the evaluation since it isnt ignoring other factors.

    i think it was first created by money. he suggested that the whole gender determining process is coded from a prenatal stage, which is influenced by the genes, and also the hormones going around in the female body which can affect brain development. after the prenatal stage obviously from birth onwards, social factors start to take place, such as the parents will know the whether the child is a boy or a girl and so they will buy the child specific gender linked things, in terms of colour, type of toys, way the child is talked to and treated etc etc. As the child grows, and go through puberty, they get there growth sperts and stuff, females develop breasts, start there periods, and males get large shoulders, physically bigger.

    The problem between gender and the childs biological sex is what we have to concentraite on though. so basicly in most cases the childs gender matches there biological sex, but there are times when this is not the case, take for example gender disphoria, where the person thinks they are stuck in the body of a opposite gender, or believe that they were born that way.

    Money tried to explain his idea through ******s (intersex for the exam). so he suggested that interesex children who are born with both sex organs can be brought up to be a male or female by gender, basicly they would obviously get rid of one genders sex organs so physically they body would match a single gender rather than two in one, and then they would raise the individual as a certain gender, he basicly just suggested that social factors are a great influence whle the child is being brought up, this would cause the child to accept the gender identity that they "tagged" by (male/female). and for all this he said it was important for all of this to occur within 3 years otherwise it cannt be changed, because at the 3rd year is when gender identity is fully established.


    i forgot some important words..... someone help please

    whats the word for when a theory ignores other theorys, its on the tip of my tounge but i cant get it
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    (Original post by wongles)
    WHAT TOPICS ARE LIKELY TO COME UP?!?!?!? ISIT WORTH REVISING GENDER SCHEMA AND BIOSOCIAL???:eek:
    revise everything, no point taking chances because the last exam was pretty terrible, alot of people failed because they tried guessing what would come up, its better to have a sound understanding of all topics and then you can have your favourite ones which you can hope and pray to come up
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    (Original post by Kakashi)
    Heres some a plan for Neural/hormonal mechanisms...

    *Biological approach explains that aggression is due to imbalances in hormones (cortisol & testosterone) and neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine)

    *Neurotransmitters
    - Serotonin: aggression is caused by Low levels of serotonin- supported by
    :Brown et al - low waste product of sertnin in Cerebrospinal fluid in aggressive ppl.
    Mann et al - altered sertonin levels in participants giving them a hostility and aggression questionnaire before and after.. he found that aggression increased in men but not women. Gender bias (alpha bias)
    Alcohols relationship with aggression may be explained by this as alcohol depletes serotonin.. thus causing aggression.
    Alternative explanation: The number of serotonin receptors increases and this causes aggression.
    Support: suicide victims, those with more receptors had a more violent death.. might wanna raise the point if suicide is really aggression cuz its self directed and not at others..

    Dopamine in high levels causes aggression.
    Support:
    Dopamine antogonists have helped to stop aggression in people.
    However, relationship of dopamine and aggression may be opposite way round- aggression causes dopamine.. this is because dopamine has a rewarding effect and so aggression is done to experience it.
    Research is limited for dopamine because of its role in allowing movement, - by lowering levels of dopamine it makes it difficult to move, so we dont know for example in studies with rats whether they are not being aggressive because of aggression decreasing or because they cant move.

    Ferrari et al (support for both sertonin and dopmine):
    Rats made to fight everyday for 10 days at a particular time. researchers measured ser and dop levels on 11th day at that time and found they had risen without a fight scenario- therefore environmental changes can make us develop aggression in this way.


    Hormones:

    Testosterone: Makes aggression more likely, higher amount doesnt mean more aggression
    Book et al: meta analysis- low positive correlation between testosterone and aggression
    Evidence is a bit unclear however:

    Keus & rose- found no significant difference of aggression between fighting and nonfighting prisoners.
    Bain et al- also found no significant difference of aggression between men who commited burglary and those who committed murder.
    Gender bias?

    Cortisol:
    low cortisol causes aggression
    support: Mcburnett et al -4 year longitudinal study of boys aged 7-12 who had been taken to clinics for behaviour probelms. researchers took cortisol measurements in 2nd and 4th year of study and found that those who had lowest cortisol were more aggressive by 3 times than those with fluctuating cortisol levels.
    Explanation why low cortison causes aggression
    *Low cortisol arousal is due to Low ANS arousal, which is unpleasant for the body,therefore aggression is done to arouse ANS.
    *Second explanation: popma et al: cortisol has a resolving role for aggression, where cortison inhibits aggression, so therefore, low cortisol= no inhibition of aggression.
    support: in a study of overt aggression, postive correlation was found for testosterone and low cortisol but no such relationship for high cortisol and aggresstion
    Biollogical approach so:
    Reductionist - we arent controlled by electrical impulses and chemicals alone. doesnt take into account, thoughts, culture, environment, experience etc also influencing us. Doesnt take individual differences or gender differences, for e.g mann et al study for serotonin mentioned above. Approach can be seen as Deterministic too.

    Treatments take a 'one size fits all' approach, not considering underlying problems which can differ in individuals like upbringing and environment.

    Thats all for Neural/hormonal explanations.. hope it helps lol
    wow that is seriously good, im going to revise from it
 
 
 
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