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Psychology A Unit 3 AQA - 17th June 2011 watch

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    I'm getting lazy now... I went upstairs earlier to look at my notes and ended up on the xbox. >.> It's a good job I remember pretty much all the notes or I think I'd be in trouble :L
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    no lie, I have never been this unprepared for an exam. oh well **** happens!
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    (Original post by Smilie :))
    Does anyone have an essay on the influence of childhood experiences on adult relationships, or could recommend a structure? im really confused!
    If by childhood you mean both childhood and adolescents then heres what i have:


    Childhood:

    >>Schaver [1988]: Adulthood romantic love is affected by 3 things,

    Attachment -

    Bowlbys internal working model:

    *secure attachment
    *insecure attachment
    Affects stability, however it might change due 'earned security'
    Despite that, your perception of your attachment may change in good times to thinking you had good attachment, and bad in bad times, thinking you have bad attachment so its not so reliable.
    Support: Fraley et al - meta analysis of attachments & later relationships- found a +ive correlation of 0.1-05

    *attachment disorders -causes difficulty in finding closness with others due to neglect and abuse and also causes lack of responsiveness... these things interfere with relationships.

    Caregiving
    - knowing how to care for others- learnt from attachment figure.

    Sexuality- avoidant attachment leads to the belief that sex without love is pleasurable

    >>Peer interaction in childhood affects duture relationships:
    support: Qualter & munn - experience with others is internalise and effects adult relationships
    Nangle et al: Childhood friendship is a training ground for adult relationships as you learn important skills for future relationships like close friend ship, affection, intimacy, trust, confiding in others, acceptance.

    Gender differences: Girls have more intimate relationships than boys, however, there are more similarites in gender than differences.



    Adolescents:

    In adolescence you have closer relationships, start getting into romantic ones and no longer have your parents as primary social support.
    Coleman and hendry say that although breaking free of parents is important, relationships with parents should be warm and close.. a term called 'connectedness'
    Larson also found by asking 10-18 year olds through pagers what they were doing, he found that time spent with family decreased in adolescence but time with each parent individually was consistent, which suggests that adolescent relationships supplement rather than replace parent-child relationships..

    Romantic relationships in adolescence help with the shift from parents and also because they provide an attachment different from that with parents.
    Madson [2001] found that with 15-18 year olds, low or moderate dating predicted good quality relationships while too much date made them bad quality
    Haynie [2003] found different, that adolecscent relationships cause deviance by 35%.

    Neeman however settles things by saying that its timing of the relationship which is important, early relationships cause bad ones later but late adolecent relationships (16 or 17 +) cause no harm to adulthood relationships.

    Evaluation point: A problem with most of these studies is that they use poor samples which are small, from one city and usually from the US. This makes it hard to generalise the findings to other places and people. The reason is theat social factors play an important part in relationships too and these factors are different throughout the world.. the studies therefore have low ecological and population validity.


    Thats all i have, sorry if it seems a bit muddled but yh hope it helps...
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    Unfortunately I only found one......hope it can help anyway
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  1. File Type: doc What is the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour.doc (27.5 KB, 216 views)
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    What do genetic factors in aggression include? Someone just bullet point for me please
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    (Original post by Finolarose)
    yesss it has a lot!!! thank youuu!!
    Your welcome
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    (Original post by akjhl)
    ohhh maynnnn i am crapping myself about tomorrow!!! am i right not to revise success/failures of dieting?? and ive still got bio rhythms to go through..... :'(

    cant wait till tomorrow is over!
    u r right not to do that even i have been advised not to waste my time on that
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    (Original post by TheRockMaster)
    Unfortunately I only found one......hope it can help anyway
    Haha cool thats almost identical to my actual lesson for that topic gonna read through it xD
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    (Original post by Converse)
    What do genetic factors in aggression include? Someone just bullet point for me please
    Rhee did a meta analysis of twins and adoption studies. Identical ones were more similar in behaviour then non identical. He also found there's aa 41% variance

    Brunner studied a dutch family, and he found the makes all displayed violent behaviour.

    Mednick analyses records of adopted children, those whose biological father was aggressive were also aggressive. If both the father and adopted father were aggressive then the child was usually even more aggressive.
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    (Original post by Converse)
    What do genetic factors in aggression include? Someone just bullet point for me please
    MAOA - if you don't know what that is i'll explain
    aggression within families

    studies:
    Brunner Et Al - family suffering from defect in MAOA showed high levels of aggression (AO3 - shared family environment)
    Gottesman - higher concordance rate of aggression in MZ twins when compared to DZ twins
    Hutchings and Mednick - children who were adopted showed levels of aggression similar to biological parents
    (AO3 - aggression could be down to separation from real parents)

    Other AO3 points:
    Hard to operationalise stuides in this area as aggressive is measured in terms of criminal records etc

    IDA:
    Deterministic - MAOA used to clear people of murder in the past
    Reductionistic
    Real life applications - can develop drugs to remove aggression
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    For biological rhythms I'm concerned about ''The Nature of sleep''.

    My plan is to introduce the sleep stages
    and then bring in elements of the restoration theory and evolutionary, is that right?
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    (Original post by Colour Me Pretty)
    Rhee did a meta analysis of twins and adoption studies. Identical ones were more similar in behaviour then non identical. He also found there's aa 41% variance

    Brunner studied a dutch family, and he found the makes all displayed violent behaviour.

    Mednick analyses records of adopted children, those whose biological father was aggressive were also aggressive. If both the father and adopted father were aggressive then the child was usually even more aggressive.

    (Original post by safwaansh)
    MAOA - if you don't know what that is i'll explain
    aggression within families

    studies:
    Brunner Et Al - family suffering from defect in MAOA showed high levels of aggression (AO3 - shared family environment)
    Gottesman - higher concordance rate of aggression in MZ twins when compared to DZ twins
    Hutchings and Mednick - children who were adopted showed levels of aggression similar to biological parents
    (AO3 - aggression could be down to separation from real parents)

    Other AO3 points:
    Hard to operationalise stuides in this area as aggressive is measured in terms of criminal records etc

    IDA:
    Deterministic - MAOA used to clear people of murder in the past
    Reductionistic
    Real life applications - can develop drugs to remove aggression
    Thank you
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    (Original post by Colour Me Pretty)
    For biological rhythms I'm concerned about ''The Nature of sleep''.

    My plan is to introduce the sleep stages
    and then bring in elements of the restoration theory and evolutionary, is that right?
    depends on how many marks the question is worth. if its around 9 marks then cover all that. if its only 5 just cover the sleep stages
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    anyone got a essay plan for sexual selection pleaseee ?!
    <3
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    (Original post by TheRockMaster)
    Unfortunately I only found one......hope it can help anyway
    That a grade C/D essay
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    late night incoming !
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    Can someone read my answer to this essay and comment on what they think and what i should include.


    Discuss biological explanations of aggression.
    It is believed that aggression is a result on hormone and neurotransmitter imbalances. Firstly, the neurotransmitter Serotonin causes aggression when there is a low level of serotonin. This is supported by Brown et al as he found a low waste product of serotonin in Cerebrospinal fluid in aggressive people. Moreover, Mann et al altered serotonin levels of participants and gave them a hostility and aggression questionnaire before and after. He found that aggression increased in men but not women, therefore the results are biased the results cannot be generalised between genders. Also, Mann chose a self report method to get his results and this can create other problems such as social desirability and other related factors.
    The number of serotonin receptors increases and this causes aggression. This idea is supported by suicide victims because those with more receptors had a more violent death. However it can be argued that suicide is not aggression because it’s not directed at others.
    Secondly, when there are high levels of dopamine this can cause aggression. However, the relationship of dopamine and aggression may be the opposite way round, e.g. aggression causes dopamine increase. This is because dopamine has a rewarding effect and so aggression is carried out to experience it. When we look further into the role of dopamine causing aggression, it is difficult to find strong research because much of the research is limited due to the role that dopamine plays in allowing movement. For example, by lowering levels of dopamine it makes it difficult to move, thus we don’t know for sure in rat studies whether the rats are not being aggressive because of decreased aggression levels or because they merely cannot move.

    Research carried out by Ferrari et al supports both serotonin and dopamine being related to aggression. Their research involved making rats fight everyday for ten days at a particular time. Dopamine and serotonin levels were measured on the 11th day at the same time as on every other day and it was found that they raised without a fight scenario, therefore environmental changed can make us develop aggression in this way. However, this research cannot be applied to humans and it is too simplistic to be able to generalise the findings to complex human beings. Furthermore, there are ethical issues with the research because the rats would have suffered harm.
    Aggression can also be a result on hormonal imbalances. For example testosterone is found to make aggression more likely, but a higher amount doesn’t necessarily mean more aggression. Moreover, Book et al carried out a Meta analysis, from why they found low positive correlation between testosterone and aggression. However these findings show correlation only, not cause and effect.
    In addition to testosterone, the hormone Cortisol has been linked to aggression, because it has been found that low cortisol levels increase aggression. Mcburnett et al carried out a 4 year longitudinal study of boys aged 7-12 who had previously attended clinics for behavioural problems. Researchers took cortisol measurements in second and fourth year of study and it was found that those who had lowest cortisol were 3 times more aggressive than those with fluctuating levels of cortisol. Furthermore, low levels of cortisol cause aggression due to low autonomic nervous system arousal, which is unpleasant for the body, thus aggression occurs in order to arouse autonomic nervous system.

    This biological approach to explain aggression is reductionist, because we are not controlled by electrical impulses and chemicals alone. This approach does not take into account thoughts, culture and environment which influences us as human beings. Individual differences and gender differences are not considered.
    Lastly, this approach can be seen as deterministic as there is no sense of free will, and treatments take a “one size fits all” approach, not considering underlying problems which can differ in individuals such as upbringing and environment.


    Thankyou in advance guys
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    [QUOTE=whatistheanswer???;3224216 6]Can someone read my answer to this essay and comment on what they think and what i should include.



    lol i swear you used my plan here ? :P tbh i included everything from the lesson and added evaluation point and synoptics so it shouldd be okay.. but for some reason it looks really short typed out but when i did it on paper it was 2 and 3/4 pages ...
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    DONE MY REVISION, going do some more tomorrow gl every1..

    y'all better be right about:


    Relationships:

    - relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour.
    - early attachment or peer interactions on later adult relationships.
    - maintenance/breakdown or just breakdown alone.

    Eating Behaviours:

    - evolutionary theory on eating behaviours.
    - biological explanations of one eating disorder.

    Hope this helps!

    Aggression
    - Group display as an adaptive response
    - Neural and hormonal

    OTHERWISE.. :l
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    (Original post by Maryam52)
    u r right not to do that even i have been advised not to waste my time on that
    well i hope it doesnt come up...its so boring! i'll just quickly look over it before the exam. at this point any question i could answer tomorrow would be an achievement! bad times

    thank you!
 
 
 
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