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    who did bruce and young question in perception? How did u find it?
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    (Original post by lol234)
    who did bruce and young question in perception? How did u find it?
    I hated that paper!
    Almost burst into tears at the end
    Relationship: was pretty good
    Intelligence: ok but don't think I had enough evaluation points
    Perception: where to begin. I couldn't remember what model it was. So I outlined and evaluated the only explanation for face recognition I can think of which was the biological stuff so said that was Bruce and Young's model. Zero marks I think for that question am devastated because needed that!
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    (Original post by liamcol123)
    January 2011?! Pleeeaasseee link it if you do!
    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=1532524

    the jan 11 paper and mark schemes in the first comment in that thread
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    ohhh didnt find that one one, thank you!
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    (Original post by Smilie :))
    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=1532524

    the jan 11 paper and mark schemes in the first comment in that thread
    Christ, I don't know what I'm talking about, already got the PSYA4 paper aha, I'm mixing up my subjects! Cheers anyway
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    (Original post by mvd_02)
    yeah i think sleep is gnna have two questions.. One on consequences of sleep disruption and the nature of sleep.
    honestly. You're some kind of wizard?!?!
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    (Original post by harleyceverett88)
    honestly. You're some kind of wizard?!?!
    haha I just worked it out LOL xD told a few friends and when we were in the exams, they all looked at me like wth LOL :\ i dno i just guessed it! but not sure for unit 4!
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    (Original post by MVD_02)
    haha I just worked it out LOL xD told a few friends and when we were in the exams, they all looked at me like wth LOL :\ i dno i just guessed it! but not sure for unit 4!
    Dang. Does anyone have any predictions? I did the PSYA4 exam after christmas but epically failed. Does anyone know what came up in it. I know it was a ***** of an exam...

    But yeah, how did you find the exam? I was pretty happy!

    BIOLOGICAL RHTHYMS: Was completely freaking out about the first question as it was so vague, but I have been assured that my answer is credit-worthy! And, the second question went ok, could've put in more A02/3.
    RELATIONSHIPS: Went fine, again, could've picked up a few extra marks. Kicking myself in the teeth now.
    AGGRESSION: WENT AMAZINGLY WELL! Could've cried when I saw neural and hormonal come up, and plus I finished it in like 20 minutes, so I had enough time to add a load of alternatives at the end!!
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    (Original post by harleyceverett88)
    Dang. Does anyone have any predictions? I did the PSYA4 exam after christmas but epically failed. Does anyone know what came up in it. I know it was a ***** of an exam...

    But yeah, how did you find the exam? I was pretty happy!

    BIOLOGICAL RHTHYMS: Was completely freaking out about the first question as it was so vague, but I have been assured that my answer is credit-worthy! And, the second question went ok, could've put in more A02/3.
    RELATIONSHIPS: Went fine, again, could've picked up a few extra marks. Kicking myself in the teeth now.
    AGGRESSION: WENT AMAZINGLY WELL! Could've cried when I saw neural and hormonal come up, and plus I finished it in like 20 minutes, so I had enough time to add a load of alternatives at the end!!

    Yeahh I loved the aggression and sleep question!! also the eating behaviour one xD

    but now its time for UNIT 4! i did the jan paper too.. i got a C but i thought f*** it, might as well retake and hope for the best! but yeah im doing schiz and media wbu?
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    (Original post by MVD_02)
    Yeahh I loved the aggression and sleep question!! also the eating behaviour one xD

    but now its time for UNIT 4! i did the jan paper too.. i got a C but i thought f*** it, might as well retake and hope for the best! but yeah im doing schiz and media wbu?
    Same Schizophrenia's easy as it's literally just 5 topics, but media is like 8 :O But I guess it isn't as bad as biological rhythms. Not going to bother learning research methods until monday when I will spend all day on it, as my friend is helping me! And she's an utter genius!
    What came up in the last psya4 exam, do you know? And at least you didn't get a U! Haha! I came out adamant in March I got at least a B!! :L
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    (Original post by harleyceverett88)
    Same Schizophrenia's easy as it's literally just 5 topics, but media is like 8 :O But I guess it isn't as bad as biological rhythms. Not going to bother learning research methods until monday when I will spend all day on it, as my friend is helping me! And she's an utter genius!
    What came up in the last psya4 exam, do you know? And at least you didn't get a U! Haha! I came out adamant in March I got at least a B!! :L
    yeahh that's true and I guess you can kinda suss what may come up.. tbh I got a feeling biological explanations and maybe a psychological/biological therapy will come up ahh yeah I may leave research methods till monday but bare in mind thats 35 marks!! :| haha aww lucky you xD
    and media hmm I dunno, probably revise about half the topics lool! but I hate media :\:\
    awwww well i'm very sure you'll smack it this time!!
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    Ahh I have really mixed feelings about the exam - just don't feel like what I wrote was of the quality I normally write (normally get over 23 in essays) and this just didn't feel like it! I hated the splits of some of the q's!

    I did sleep, relationships + eating. Really wasnt pleasant

    If anyones feeling kind, here's everything i remember i wrote about, how good/bad is it?

    Spoiler:
    Show


    1. Outline nature of sleep (9 ao1)

    1st suggested we have REM and NREM – REM linked to dreaming
    Further research suggested that 4 stages of nrem
    Sleep becomes deeper and deeper as go down the stages
    Stage 4 is SWS – most likely when we experience parrasomnias
    Rem and nrem described as active and quiet sleep
    Rem known as active because brain waves are most active shown in EEG patterns in sleep labs. REM is deepest sleep, body paralysis , hardest to be woken
    Empson – sleep lab, after 1st night we do have normal sleep. Sleep lab only way to record ‘sleep’ through connecting electrodes to sides of brain and EEG shows the brain waves which are then linking to the separate stages of sleep. No clear cut point in eeg recordings of when we fall asleep as sleep onset is gradual
    REM linked to being restorative, exercise for brain. Nrem linked to being for body restoration.

    2. Consider the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms (16 ao2)

    Seen in jet lag and shift work
    Shift work – serious implications on mental and physical health. Demands awake at night and asleep during day whilst endog and exog demand the opposite.
    Health problems – Knutson – those carrying out shift work for 15+ yrs 3x more likely to suffer heart disease. V serious implications for those in shift work, could potentially cause death. But research is correlational – other factors could’ve caused heart disease. Cant establish c+e.
    Social problems – less likely to make friends + Solomon found divorce rates 60%. Negative Implications on our relationships if we disrupt bio rhythm
    Jet Lag involves a disparity between internal clock and external cues due to time change.
    Evolutionary theory suggests we suffer consequences as ancestors in EEA didn’t travel so not accustomed to time changes therefore explains why it’s maladaptive. But evol theory faces many problems – based on deductive reasoning therefore no empirical ev to support, makes it difficult to falsify. Suggests this explanation is meaningless because psychology is a science as strives for empirical (observable and meas) data.
    Research into jet lag gd application – melatonin used to induce sleep. Told to go out into bright light and eat at meal times of time zone
    Recht et al – basket-ball study found 7% decline in average games won when travelling east. Supports idea of phase advance occurring – when we travel east attempt to shorten our days most disruptive. But not significant enough to say that it is bad as its only7% and correlational nature means that there could’ve been many other factors attributed to the decline as c+e cant be established.


    3. Influence of childhood and/or adolescent relationships on adults (9ao1, 16 ao2)


    Shaver et al – romantic love integration of caregiving, attachment and sexual desire (blanked on the word supposed to be sexuality system) learnt at infancy. Therefore we learn what to expect in later relationships through childhood exposure.
    Supported by Bowlby – internal working model, form representation of what to expect in later life = continuity hypothesis. Parents behaviour towards us creates our attachment type.
    But deterministic – surely we have free will to change our attachment type. E.g. Kirkpatrick and Hazen found that after a break up shifted from secure to insecure questioning deterministic nature of Bowlby’s theory.
    Temperament hypothesis – parents act way they do cos of attitude we are born determining attachment type? Or are we ‘born blank slates’ and therefore their behaviour effectively moulds us?
    Psychodynamic approach – little empirical evidence, can’t test.
    But Kirkpat contradicted by Fraley – meta analysis correlation between 0.1 – 0.5 between infant and current attachment type. Supports Bowlby continuity hypothesis. But meta analysis which means that different methods of assessing attachment type as different research methods used which lower validity of findings and could skew the result; attachment types hard to measure. Also means 1 conclusion cant be made from research. Also, correlational so c+e cant be established and the link is only weak, surely if theory is correct we’d expect stronger correlation
    Interaction w peers also important – child learns feelings of intimacy + affection through relationship with friends which promotes feelings of trust and acceptance. Perhaps these feelings become internalised and can help develop stable/unstable relationships
    In adolescence interaction with peers can have negative effects – haynie increased some forms of deviance by 34%. But also allow for teen to experience physical and emotional intimacy different to ones with parents.


    4. Explain one psychological approach for an eating disorder (5 ao1)

    Cognitive – faulty thinking triggers BN
    Cooper et al believes that there are developmental factors in triggering BN; early trauma experienced leads to person thinking of themselves as unlovable or worthless and exposure to views on weight & shape sparks the faulty thinking that fat = bad, thin = good. Resort to BN as a way of coping with feelings about themselves.
    Consistent with evidence from Leung et al who found that lack of parental bonding was linked to the development of dysfunctional beliefs e.g. belief of being unacceptable to others amongst BN sufferers
    Believes BN sufferer has a dysfunctional beliefs about what is a healthy body shape and distorted perception of their body image.


    5. Evolutionary explanations for food preference (4 ao1, 16 ao2)

    Evolutionary theory explains our food preferences down to the adaptive benefit for food. Thought that our ancestors in EEA lived in hunter gatherer societies and food was limited and barely any food storage. As a result, ate foods high in calories e.g. carbs. Suggested that this is why we tend to prefer sweet foods (rich in carbs) but we have plentiful food and storage so has led to belief we live in an ‘obesogenic’ environment.
    Support for evolved preference to sweet foods can be seen by Desor – new born babies facial expression and sucking as index to food preference, preferred sweet tasting foods.
    Davis wisdom of the body theory suggests that we have an innate, regulatory system that regulates our food intake. Seen in 9yr study, infants allowed to eat as much whenever of 12 predetermined foods w/o salt, seasoning or sugar. Found that none had any health/ nutritional problems. Supports idea of us evolving an innate regulatory system
    Davis’ study also didn’t include unhealthy foods – unrepresentative of food in real life.
    But – Evolutionary theory many faults – deterministic, unfalsifiable, based on deductive reasoning. Surely we can override any innate drives to choose food e.g. perhaps we eat food as it is a reward (behavioural approach) so perhaps a more interactionist approach that considers evolution + behavioural more appropriate which combines nature + nurture.
    More support for evolutionary taste preferences seen by Geldard et al who found that babies rejected bitter tasting foods – perhaps because for our ancestors bitter foods would often be poisonous. Therefore, we have evolved an aversion to bitter foods, and instead prefer sweet tasting foods.

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    Can anyone link me to the unit 4 thread?
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    I did Aggression, Sleep and Intelligence.
    All 3 Q's I'd predicted to come up, so I was smiling like an idiot when I saw them come up!
    Those who did intelligence, how did you include your A03?
    I included ethics and something else, just wondering what else we could have written?
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    (Original post by ajs2602)
    I did Aggression, Sleep and Intelligence.
    All 3 Q's I'd predicted to come up, so I was smiling like an idiot when I saw them come up!
    Those who did intelligence, how did you include your A03?
    I included ethics and something else, just wondering what else we could have written?
    I talked about it being post hoc therefore deterministic to assume such theories can explain evo of hum I etc.
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    hated that paper, opened it and my first thoughts were 'i cant answer this'. did manage to figure something out in the end, gave answers for all questions, but whether they were right i guess i'll have to wait and see!
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    (Original post by gchaggar75)
    I talked about it being post hoc therefore deterministic to assume such theories can explain evo of hum I etc.
    Oh okay, I talked about gender differences in brain size and determinism i think..
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    Was a tough exam i wrote 12 pages?
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    quality not quantity
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    I think you have an A grade essay there if you evaluated in detail too. I did Eating Behaviour and Relationships:

    In relationships I also talked about Bowlby; his primary attachment theory with monotropy, internal working model, continuity hypothesis etc... I then went on to talk about Ainsworth and Bell's similar ideas, then Kaplans ideas such as direct observation, social facilitation, and instruction. I talked about Gabriel and Tarde's social hypothesis of close proximity, imitation of superiors, understanding of concepts and role model behaviour. I then went on about Hazan and Shaver's 'Love Quiz' published in the Rocky Mountain News.

    It seems you have decent evaluation in that question, I think you should of perhaps (if you didn't) mentioned about most of the research in this field being emic constructs (primarily made in a Western culture) and then being used as imposed etics. I think you mentioned determinism? - the idea our previous child-parent relationship determines our future adult ones removes our autonomy. I would have mentioned about most of the research being observation so to directly infer cause and effect is difficult etc... I wouldn't worry, you have a much better essay structure than most people, you should be hitting an A grade at least with that; especially due to the lower grade boundaries of Psychology.

    ________________________________ _____


    I was quite fond of the relationships question. The first five marker was 'Outline' not 'explain', so providing back up research wouldn't have gained you any extra marks, but if you were borederline, may have persuaded the examiner up one. I talked again about Gabriel and Tarde's (1912) original hypothesis on the social learning theory. And I did actually provide back up research about how media plays an influence which can be explained through social learning by Fearn on the Island of Fiji and the media coming into effect before and after 1995 etc... If in your answer you outined fully the approach and gave an example of how it works you'll be hitting 4-5 marks; if you didn't, you'll be hitting around 2/3-4 marks.


    I'm glad the evolutionary question came up, it has so many flaws it's easy to find evaluative points. I originally talked about Darwin and the fact our behavioural traits must portray an advantage or make no difference to survival and reproduction and then related it to our modern day society eating behaviours (including all the EEA stuff), I explained all what you did in the first part of your essay; so that's all good! I also talked about Davis and Desor; it's great research, I didn't know anyone else would find it! I also talked about Dunbar's hypothesis on Dietary (with Hladik on smell and taste preferences), Mental Maps and Extractive Foraging hypothesis (with Mercader's research in West Africa and the Kung San, Tazmanian Aborigines tribe) and then Social hypothesis by Stanford on Meat Sharing etc... I like your evaluative points, I also mentioned Karl Poppers falsification principle, determinism, I evaluated at the start how evololutionary theory is the biological approach and the weaknesses of that too.

    In principle, you have done well, and included a nice balance of research and evaluation; most people don't mention a lot of research and some completely forget most of the marks are in evaluation and application. I would bet money on you obtaining an A grade, I don't know what you need, if you're looking for an A* or not as that too, is possible. To really analyse what mark you got I'd have to read your real paper, but I'd stop worrying about because you've definitely done fine!

    (Original post by Been_22)
    Ahh I have really mixed feelings about the exam - just don't feel like what I wrote was of the quality I normally write (normally get over 23 in essays) and this just didn't feel like it! I hated the splits of some of the q's!

    I did sleep, relationships + eating. Really wasnt pleasant

    If anyones feeling kind, here's everything i remember i wrote about, how good/bad is it?

    Spoiler:
    Show


    1. Outline nature of sleep (9 ao1)

    1st suggested we have REM and NREM – REM linked to dreaming
    Further research suggested that 4 stages of nrem
    Sleep becomes deeper and deeper as go down the stages
    Stage 4 is SWS – most likely when we experience parrasomnias
    Rem and nrem described as active and quiet sleep
    Rem known as active because brain waves are most active shown in EEG patterns in sleep labs. REM is deepest sleep, body paralysis , hardest to be woken
    Empson – sleep lab, after 1st night we do have normal sleep. Sleep lab only way to record ‘sleep’ through connecting electrodes to sides of brain and EEG shows the brain waves which are then linking to the separate stages of sleep. No clear cut point in eeg recordings of when we fall asleep as sleep onset is gradual
    REM linked to being restorative, exercise for brain. Nrem linked to being for body restoration.

    2. Consider the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms (16 ao2)

    Seen in jet lag and shift work
    Shift work – serious implications on mental and physical health. Demands awake at night and asleep during day whilst endog and exog demand the opposite.
    Health problems – Knutson – those carrying out shift work for 15+ yrs 3x more likely to suffer heart disease. V serious implications for those in shift work, could potentially cause death. But research is correlational – other factors could’ve caused heart disease. Cant establish c+e.
    Social problems – less likely to make friends + Solomon found divorce rates 60%. Negative Implications on our relationships if we disrupt bio rhythm
    Jet Lag involves a disparity between internal clock and external cues due to time change.
    Evolutionary theory suggests we suffer consequences as ancestors in EEA didn’t travel so not accustomed to time changes therefore explains why it’s maladaptive. But evol theory faces many problems – based on deductive reasoning therefore no empirical ev to support, makes it difficult to falsify. Suggests this explanation is meaningless because psychology is a science as strives for empirical (observable and meas) data.
    Research into jet lag gd application – melatonin used to induce sleep. Told to go out into bright light and eat at meal times of time zone
    Recht et al – basket-ball study found 7% decline in average games won when travelling east. Supports idea of phase advance occurring – when we travel east attempt to shorten our days most disruptive. But not significant enough to say that it is bad as its only7% and correlational nature means that there could’ve been many other factors attributed to the decline as c+e cant be established.


    3. Influence of childhood and/or adolescent relationships on adults (9ao1, 16 ao2)


    Shaver et al – romantic love integration of caregiving, attachment and sexual desire (blanked on the word supposed to be sexuality system) learnt at infancy. Therefore we learn what to expect in later relationships through childhood exposure.
    Supported by Bowlby – internal working model, form representation of what to expect in later life = continuity hypothesis. Parents behaviour towards us creates our attachment type.
    But deterministic – surely we have free will to change our attachment type. E.g. Kirkpatrick and Hazen found that after a break up shifted from secure to insecure questioning deterministic nature of Bowlby’s theory.
    Temperament hypothesis – parents act way they do cos of attitude we are born determining attachment type? Or are we ‘born blank slates’ and therefore their behaviour effectively moulds us?
    Psychodynamic approach – little empirical evidence, can’t test.
    But Kirkpat contradicted by Fraley – meta analysis correlation between 0.1 – 0.5 between infant and current attachment type. Supports Bowlby continuity hypothesis. But meta analysis which means that different methods of assessing attachment type as different research methods used which lower validity of findings and could skew the result; attachment types hard to measure. Also means 1 conclusion cant be made from research. Also, correlational so c+e cant be established and the link is only weak, surely if theory is correct we’d expect stronger correlation
    Interaction w peers also important – child learns feelings of intimacy + affection through relationship with friends which promotes feelings of trust and acceptance. Perhaps these feelings become internalised and can help develop stable/unstable relationships
    In adolescence interaction with peers can have negative effects – haynie increased some forms of deviance by 34%. But also allow for teen to experience physical and emotional intimacy different to ones with parents.


    4. Explain one psychological approach for an eating disorder (5 ao1)

    Cognitive – faulty thinking triggers BN
    Cooper et al believes that there are developmental factors in triggering BN; early trauma experienced leads to person thinking of themselves as unlovable or worthless and exposure to views on weight & shape sparks the faulty thinking that fat = bad, thin = good. Resort to BN as a way of coping with feelings about themselves.
    Consistent with evidence from Leung et al who found that lack of parental bonding was linked to the development of dysfunctional beliefs e.g. belief of being unacceptable to others amongst BN sufferers
    Believes BN sufferer has a dysfunctional beliefs about what is a healthy body shape and distorted perception of their body image.


    5. Evolutionary explanations for food preference (4 ao1, 16 ao2)

    Evolutionary theory explains our food preferences down to the adaptive benefit for food. Thought that our ancestors in EEA lived in hunter gatherer societies and food was limited and barely any food storage. As a result, ate foods high in calories e.g. carbs. Suggested that this is why we tend to prefer sweet foods (rich in carbs) but we have plentiful food and storage so has led to belief we live in an ‘obesogenic’ environment.
    Support for evolved preference to sweet foods can be seen by Desor – new born babies facial expression and sucking as index to food preference, preferred sweet tasting foods.
    Davis wisdom of the body theory suggests that we have an innate, regulatory system that regulates our food intake. Seen in 9yr study, infants allowed to eat as much whenever of 12 predetermined foods w/o salt, seasoning or sugar. Found that none had any health/ nutritional problems. Supports idea of us evolving an innate regulatory system
    Davis’ study also didn’t include unhealthy foods – unrepresentative of food in real life.
    But – Evolutionary theory many faults – deterministic, unfalsifiable, based on deductive reasoning. Surely we can override any innate drives to choose food e.g. perhaps we eat food as it is a reward (behavioural approach) so perhaps a more interactionist approach that considers evolution + behavioural more appropriate which combines nature + nurture.
    More support for evolutionary taste preferences seen by Geldard et al who found that babies rejected bitter tasting foods – perhaps because for our ancestors bitter foods would often be poisonous. Therefore, we have evolved an aversion to bitter foods, and instead prefer sweet tasting foods.

 
 
 
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