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AQA BIOL1 Biology Unit 1 Exam - 16th May 2011 watch

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    big enzyme questio could turn up
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    (Original post by jsmith6131)
    big enzyme questio could turn up
    Easiest topic for me. Just BS about the shape and structure and how it changes when stuff happens
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    The lysosomes can recycle the material of the pathogen and egests the waste products.
    Is that on the mark scheme ? : s
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    Is that on the mark scheme ? : s
    I think so. Haven't checked but it's in my books and teacher taught it.
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    (Original post by liviaaa)
    Yupp what would you write? About like trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alevoli?
    lungs are lobe like structures, the trachea is supported by ring cartilages to prevent the airways collapsing during inspiration and the muscles are lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells, which produce mucus to trap the microorganisms and dirt to prevent it entering the blood system by diffusing through the alveoli, the trachea then divide into two divisions, one in each lung, it's structure is similar to the trachea but the ring cartilages are thinner. this then divides into the bronchioles which has muscle that contracts to control the volume of air entering the alveoli, the alveoli are the site of gas exchange and is made out of collagen and elastin that allows it to recoil so air can passively expirate via the springing and recoil of the alveoli.



    what's the stucture of the epithelial cell?
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    Can anyone help me with q5diii? Don't understand why there needs to be two antibodies? Same with pregnancy test.

    Also the plate is washed, i don't understand what on earth the enzyme has to do with the antibodies and antigens, and have't all the antigens been washed away?!....Really confused by this...

    Anyone help please?

    http://store.aqa.org.uk/qual/gce/pdf...W-QP-JUN09.PDF
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    (Original post by DoaaK)
    lungs are lobe like structures, the trachea is supported by ring cartilages to prevent the airways collapsing during inspiration and the muscles are lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells, which produce mucus to trap the microorganisms and dirt to prevent it entering the blood system by diffusing through the alveoli, the trachea then divide into two divisions, one in each lung, it's structure is similar to the trachea but the ring cartilages are thinner. this then divides into the bronchioles which has muscle that contracts to control the volume of air entering the alveoli, the alveoli are the site of gas exchange and is made out of collagen and elastin that allows it to recoil so air can passively expirate via the springing and recoil of the alveoli.



    what's the stucture of the epithelial cell?
    Epithelial cells are like a normal eukaryotic cell? They have 80s ribsomes? Nucleus. Cell membrane. Golgi apparatus for vesicles. RER for protein synthesis. Mitochondria production of energy, site of aerobic respiration.
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    (Original post by DoaaK)
    lungs are lobe like structures, the trachea is supported by ring cartilages to prevent the airways collapsing during inspiration and the muscles are lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells, which produce mucus to trap the microorganisms and dirt to prevent it entering the blood system by diffusing through the alveoli, the trachea then divide into two divisions, one in each lung, it's structure is similar to the trachea but the ring cartilages are thinner. this then divides into the bronchioles which has muscle that contracts to control the volume of air entering the alveoli, the alveoli are the site of gas exchange and is made out of collagen and elastin that allows it to recoil so air can passively expirate via the springing and recoil of the alveoli.



    what's the stucture of the epithelial cell?
    Thanks

    Just like any ekaryotic cell I guess, membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm..
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    We're going to need a big post-exam discussion thread tomorrow
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    (Original post by Tericon)
    Can anyone help me with q5diii? Don't understand why there needs to be two antibodies? Same with pregnancy test.

    Also the plate is washed, i don't understand what on earth the enzyme has to do with the antibodies and antigens, and have't all the antigens been washed away?!....Really confused by this...

    Anyone help please?

    http://store.aqa.org.uk/qual/gce/pdf...W-QP-JUN09.PDF
    I'm on it!
    Mainly cos I've done that question a long time ago but need to remember it D:

    for III it's because if you don't wash it out you can still have sone left so if the antigens are not present you still get a positive result as they are stil there. Enzymes are related to the antibodies/gens because it's monoclonal. To see if they are infected, the enzyme is used. If it binds to the antigen it is infected.
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    How are lungs adapted to gas exchange?

    Explain Humoral and Cell mediated Response?

    EACH 5 MARKS
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    Test for non reducing sugar !!!
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    can someone explain vaccines & monoclonal antibodies :/ so confusing
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    Is it just me that is finding Immunity hard and everything else really easy?
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    Test for non reducing sugar !!!
    add benedicts reagent, if the colouring stays blue you add hydrochloric acid (i think) to break the disaccharide into it's monosaccharides. Then you add sodium hydrogen carbonate (i think) which because it's an alkaline will neutralise the acid.
    Then re-test with benedicts reagent and if a non reducing sugar is present, the colour will go from blue to orange/brown
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    (Original post by nasira372)
    Is it just me that is finding Immunity hard and everything else really easy?
    thats me :confused: im just gonna memorise it now.
    i have a feeling it'll come up and i don't want to go into the exam with any skeletons in my closet
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    I'm on it!
    Mainly cos I've done that question a long time ago but need to remember it D:

    for III it's because if you don't wash it out you can still have sone left so if the antigens are not present you still get a positive result as they are stil there. Enzymes are related to the antibodies/gens because it's monoclonal. To see if they are infected, the enzyme is used. If it binds to the antigen it is infected.
    Antibody has specific shape which is complemetary to that antigen gets you the mark?
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    Test for non reducing sugar !!!
    You would add benedicts solution and boil it for a while. If it was blueish then there are no reducing sugars present. This is so confirm that it is not a reducing sugar. Then you would have to hydrolyse it by adding dil HCl (with heat?) and then neutralise it with NaOh (why do you neutralise it anyway?) before adding benedicts again. If it goes brick red it is positive so shows that it was a non reducing sugar.
    (Original post by Jubilee~)
    can someone explain vaccines & monoclonal antibodies :/ so confusing
    Done a briefish one above.
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    How are lungs adapted to gas exchange?

    Explain Humoral and Cell mediated Response?

    EACH 5 MARKS
    Lungs have alveoli that increase the surface area to volume ratio allowing for effcient gas exchange. The alveoli have thin walls so have a short diffusion pathway, so oxygen can diffuse rapidly. The alveoli are moist, again for effiient gas exchange. The alveoli have a good supply of blood to maintain the concentration gradient to allow oxygen to diffuse down its concentration gradient efficiently.

    Humoural is basically the B-cells that produce memory cells, and plasma cells that produce memory cells. So if the foreign antigen was to re-enter the body again, the memory cells would remember the antigen so there wouldnt be a primary response i.e. the person would not feel ill, there would be a quicker response so th person doesnt feel ill. Cell-mediated is basically how the T-cells work, i.e. they attach themselves to the antigens creating a antibody antigen complex?!?!? and then they stimulate the b-cells. Also the T killer cells kill the cell by various ways e.g. poking holes in the cell making it burst?

    Mark what you think I would have got out of 5 for each and where I could improve please !! thanks
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    How are lungs adapted to gas exchange?

    Explain Humoral and Cell mediated Response?

    EACH 5 MARKS
    Lungs are adapted for gas exchange because they have many alveoli walls which provide a large surface area so faster diffusion. Also the walls of the alveoli are really thin so the diffusion pathway is really short so even faster diffusion. The concentration gradient is maintained by ventillation of air and circulation of blood which believe it or not, makes the diffusion gradient even faster....
 
 
 
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