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AQA BIOL1 Biology Unit 1 Exam - 16th May 2011 Watch

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    Produces toxin, open chloride ion channels, Thereffore water potential in lumen decreases, water moves into lumen by osmosis, and you have diarrhoea
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    (Original post by Tericon)
    Ok, still confused (I'm a special brand of stupidity :P)

    I get steps 1 and 2 detailed in the question. They make perfect sense, what i don't get is:

    1. Why carry on? They've established the sample contains the antigen and so person is infected right?
    2. why use another antibody?
    3. The plate is washed at step 4, so what remains on the plate? antibodies are stuck to plate right? but haven't all the antigens gone?
    4. How on earth can an enzyme be complementary to an antigen?!

    Thanks
    I can't remember the questions and feeling tired so :/ must put JPOP louder to keep awake.
    1. I think it is to establish whether or not the drug is attatching to the antigen.
    2. The first antibody binds to the antigen if it is present. The second binds to the first antibody. Used to see if it binds.
    3. The antibodies are still there. The solution is not I think.
    4. The enzyme is a monoclonal antibody and is complimentry in shape to the antibody not antigen.
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    Reduced elasticity; Lungs cant fully inflate, so less oxygen diffues through to the blood.

    Thicker walls, less gas exchange surface..

    Alveolar damages reduced Sa...

    Coz of all of these, Less respiration as less oxygen reaches respiring tissue so you're tired

    Somewhere along the lines of that?
    yepp thats right !
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    yepp thats right !
    How much wood would chuck norris chuck if chuck norris could chuck wood?
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    (Original post by Jubilee~)
    Okay so here's a question.


    Explain how the Cholera bacteria causes diarrhea in the patients
    - mention water potential etc.
    My fave.

    Cholera produces a toxin that binds to the channel proteins for Cl- ions. This causes them to open. The Cl ions will enter the small intestine lumen lowering the water potential. This causes water to enter through osmosis so the faeces become watery. Symptons include diarrhea and flatulance.

    Can anybody tell me which processes use channel proteins and which use carrier proteins?
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    How much wood would chuck norris chuck if chuck norris could chuck wood?
    2 moles of wood.
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    How much wood would chuck norris chuck if chuck norris could chuck wood?
    what is cardiac output mean ?
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    (Original post by Jubilee~)
    Okay so here's a question.


    Explain how the Cholera bacteria causes diarrhea in the patients
    - mention water potential etc.
    Vibrio Cholera has a flagelum that pentrates its way through the epithelial cells of the small intestine causing the ion channels to open so the chloride ions in the epithelial cells flood in to the lumen of the small intestine, reducing the water potential in the lumen and increasing the water potential in the epithelail cell. water then goes from high to low water potential via osmosis.
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    Cholera causes the chloride ion channels to open in the eptihelial cells of the small intestines. The chloride ions then move out of the cells into the lumen, lowering the water potenial of the lumen. Water therefore follows out of the blood into the lume from a high water potential to low, by osmosis
    Great answer but be careful, the water moves flows from the CELLS (higher water potential) into the lumen (lower water potential) on this water potential gradient by osmosis.
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    2 moles of wood.
    Lol perfect answer
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    what is cardiac output mean ?
    Amount of blood pumped by the heart in a minute?
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    My fave.

    Cholera produces a toxin that binds to the channel proteins for Cl- ions. This causes them to open. The Cl ions will enter the small intestine lumen lowering the water potential. This causes water to enter through osmosis so the faeces become watery. Symptons include diarrhea and flatulance.

    Can anybody tell me which processes use channel proteins and which use carrier proteins?
    Carrier proteins for active transport and Channel proteins for faciliatated diffusion
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    (Original post by Jubilee~)
    Great answer but be careful, the water moves flows from the CELLS (higher water potential) into the lumen (lower water potential) on this water potential gradient by osmosis.
    Actually water flows from the BLOOD to the lumen through the epithelium cell
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    I can't remember the questions and feeling tired so :/ must put JPOP louder to keep awake.
    1. I think it is to establish whether or not the drug is attatching to the antigen.
    2. The first antibody binds to the antigen if it is present. The second binds to the first antibody. Used to see if it binds.
    3. The antibodies are still there. The solution is not I think.
    4. The enzyme is a monoclonal antibody and is complimentry in shape to the antibody not antigen.
    I get it now thank you I've struggled with that beastly question for two years :P
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    I'm so tired the question marks in my username appear to be moving...
    Time for my skittles hit!
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    (Original post by Rizzy J)
    Vibrio Cholera has a flagelum that pentrates its way through the epithelial cells of the small intestine causing the ion channels to open so the chloride ions in the epithelial cells flood in to the lumen of the small intestine, reducing the water potential in the lumen and increasing the water potential in the epithelail cell. water then goes from high to low water potential via osmosis.
    great, just with the last bit make sure you specify that the water moves from the epethilial cell into the lumen.
    just so you dont lose any marks
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    (Original post by BeejTheone)
    Amount of blood pumped by the heart in a minute?
    I think so because stroke volume is volume of blood in the something lol? and the heart rate is the number of beats in a minute i think ??
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    (Original post by Tericon)
    I get it now thank you I've struggled with that beastly question for two years :P
    Retaking is for the third time? Third time lucky? :O Though need to be first time lucky for me Hardly any unis like retakes when applying for medicene.
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    (Original post by Rickesh)
    I think so because stroke volume is volume of blood in the something lol? and the heart rate is the number of beats in a minute i think ??
    Yeah i just checked what i said is right.

    Stroke volume is volume of blood pumped by the ventricles in a heartbeat lol ;D

    Im off now! Gl everyone
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    (Original post by ??????????????????)
    Retaking is for the third time? Third time lucky? :O Though need to be first time lucky for me Hardly any unis like retakes when applying for medicene.
    What did you get the other times ? Wow your applying for medicine ? Already applied or going to ?
 
 
 
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