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OCR 21st Century Science Ideas In Context Thread watch

1. If anyone needs some P7 questions

1.) Why does telemetry use microwaves and radio waves to transmit data as opposed to, for example, visible light or ultraviolet?
2.) Using diagrams and full sentences, explain the differences between analogue and digital signals.
3.) Describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of digital against analogue signals.
4.) How would you calculate:
a.) Kinetic Energy
b.) Momentum
from the speed of the car?
c.) A formula 1 car has a mass of 620 kg. Using the graph, calculate:
i.) Maximum kinetic energy reached
ii.) Maximum momentum reached
iii.) Minimum kinetic energy reached
iv.) Minimum momentum reached
5.) How does time taken to stop affect the force acting on the object that is stopping?
6.) How do crumple zones help reduce the force acting on the driver in a crash?
7.) Describe and explain at least 2 ways that the HANS device helps reduce damage to the driver in a crash?
8.) Match the keyword to the definition

Automatic
Measurement
Transmission
Remote Source
Aerodynamic
Efficiency
Momentum
Kinetic Energy
Analogue
Digital
Energy

WITH

1/2 mass x velocity [squared]
Discrete (individual, not continuous) values
The size, length or amount of something, established by measuring
Measured by the amount of work done, usually in joules, J
A value along a continuous scale
Mass x velocity
Using the least amount of energy compared to how much energy is put in
Able to activate, move, or regulate itself
A distant object that something comes from
Having a shape that reduces the drag from air moving past
A program or signal that is broadcast or sent out
2. (Original post by Ears)
Nope
It's for the additional science ideas in context

(Original post by bestfriends33)
Thank you soooooo much!
They are very useful..
Do you have any on Physics - Additional Science by any chance?
1. Where do all metals come from - which sphere?
All metals come from the lithosphere and most are too reactive to exist on their own in the ground, instead they exist combined with other elements as compounds. The Earth’s lithosphere is the rigid outer layer that is made up of the crust and the part of the mantle just below it.
2. What is the RAM of 4g of copper?
Regardless of how many grams you have, the atomic mass should still be 63.546 (as shown in the periodic table).
3. Give two properties of lithium
Lithium is an alkali metal and is soft, low density, low melting point
4. What is the proton number of aluminium?
Proton number is the same as the atomic number, which is 13. This means that aluminium has 13 protons and 13 electrons. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons because atoms are neutral (have no overall charge).
5. What type of energy is in a battery?
Chemical energy
6. What types of metals are iron and zinc?
Transition metals
7. What is meant by the word components?
Parts e.g. like parts of the mobile phone
8. What is meant by the word extracted?
Means the action of taking out something, often using effort or force. Metals are extracted from ores.
9. What is an ore?
An ore is a type of rock that contains useful minerals. The valuable minerals are often the oxides or sulfides of metals. The ores are extracted through mining and then valuable element is extracted from the ore. E.g. Al from Bauxite Al2O3
10. What percentage of copper ore is pure copper mineral?
Most copper ores contain only a small percentage of copper metal bound up within valuable ore minerals, with the remainder of the ore being unwanted rock. The ore in an open pit mine may contain as little as 0.4% copper and the 99.6% of the rock dug up from the ground is becomes waste.
11. Which issues have to be considered before metals can be extracted from ores?
Costs of extraction, effects on the environment, the amount of waste produced.
12. Why is carbon used to extract metals from ores?
Carbon is used as a reducing agent to extract metals because at high temperatures carbon has a strong tendency to react with oxygen. Another benefit to using carbon is that the carbon monoxide formed after it has removed the oxygen from the air is a gas so does not left behind to make the metal that was being extracted impure. The source of carbon for this reduction is coke, obtained by heating coal in the absence of oxygen.
13. What is electrolysis and how does it work?
Electrolysis is the extraction method used when the metal being extracted is more reactive than carbon. E.g. Aluminium is a reactive metal and holds on oxygen very strongly. Aluminium ore is called bauxite, aluminium oxide, from which aluminium can be extracted.
But first the aluminium oxide must be made molten because for electrolysis to work, the ions must be free to move. When an ionic compound is dissolved in water, or melts, the ions break free from the ionic lattice. These ions are then free to move. The solution or molten ionic compound is called an electrolyte. The negative electrode is called the cathode, while the positive electrode is called the anode.
This is what happens during electrolysis:
Positively charged ions (e.g. in this case Cu2+) move to the negative electrode. Metal ions are positively charged, so metals are produced at the negative electrode (cathode).
Negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode. Non-metal ions, such as oxide ions and chloride ions, are negatively charged, so gases such as oxygen or chlorine are produced at the positive electrode (anode).
14. Why has the price of copper “rocketed up”?
Because copper is being extracted from ores that have lower and lower percentages of copper because the ores with the higher copper content are running out.
15. How much did copper cost in 2003?
Four times less than it did in 2008.
16. What do you think might be a problem with mining ores with lower percentages of copper in them?
Because a lot of the rock that has been dug will be wasted. Lots of waste, very little metal.
17. What is an open cast mine?
Open-cast mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. The other type of mining involves e tunneling into the earth. Open-cast mines are used when commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surface.
18. Apart from noise, dust and traffic problems, what other problems does copper mining produce?
Mining produces large volumes of waste rock and can leave large holes in the ground.
18. How do mining companies try to address peoples’ concerns
19. What other environmental problems do you think mining can cause?
Mining produces large volumes of waste rock and can leave large holes in the ground.
20. What is the same about both methods of processing copper?
Both methods require large amounts of energy.
21. How is this an environmental problem?
Energy comes the burning of fossil fuels, which are a non renewable source of energy and releases CO2 into the atmosphere.
22. What does the word blister mean? Bubbles of trapped gas (sulphur dioxide)on the copper
23. What is the RFM of copper pyrites?
Cu (63.5) + Fe (56) + 2S (32.1 x2) = 183.7
24. What are the disadvantages of the blister process?
The copper made using this process is not very pure.
25. What is meant by the words waste iron ****? It is Iron mixed with silicon
26. What does the word oxidised mean? Oxidation is gain of oxygen. Oxidation needs a oxidising agent which will add the oxygen.
27. What does the word reduction mean? Reduction is loss of oxygen. Reduction needs a reducing agent to remove the oxygen.
28. What is the RFM of malachite?
Cu (63.5) + C (12) + 3O (3 x16) = 123.5
29. What does the word purified mean? It means that all the impurities (anything that will contaminate the metal) have been removed.
30. Why is copper used in mobile phone?
Pure copper is an excellent electricity conductor.
31. What does malleability mean?
It is a word used to describe metals and if a metal is malleable it means it can be hammered into shape without cracking
32. What property do you think makes copper good for making jewellery?
Copper is very malleable
33. Page 139 – questions 4,5,6,7,8 (questions and answers are below, use a periodic table to look up relative atomic masses.
4. Q-What is the relative formula mass of carbon dioxide (CO2)?
A- 12 + (2 ? 16) = 44
5. Q- What mass of Aluminium could be made from 1 tonne of Al2O¬3?
A-53 tonne
6. Q-What mass of Na could be made from 2 tonnes NaCl?
A- 0.79 tonne
7. Q-The main ore of chromium is FeCr2O4. What is the mass percentage of Cr in FeCr2O4?
A-46%
8. Q- 1000 tonnes of copper are dug out of the ground. Only 1% of this is pure mineral, CuFeS2. What mass of the Cu could be made from a 1000 tonnes of the ore?
A-3.5 tonne
34. page 141 – questions 9 and 10
9. Q- Draw a diagram to electron arrangements in an aluminium atom and an alumium ion.
A-

10 Q- Sodium is extracted by electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
a) what are the two products of the process?
b) Use words and symbols to describe the changes at the electrodes during this process
A- a) Sodium and chlorine
b) At the negative electrode:
sodium ion + electron ? sodium atom
Na+ + e– ? Na
At the positive electrode:
chloride ion – electron ? chlorine atom
Cl– – e– ? Cl
chlorine atom + chlorine atom ? chlorine molecule
Cl + Cl ? Cl2

hope this helps. this is only for chemistry
3. (Original post by bigbrowneyes)
Thanks does have anyone have any ideas about chemistry ?
if this is for additional science. then ya. i have posted some answers to 'majids' questions on chemistry. this is for ocr 21 century
4. Does anyone have the answers to the biology and physics questions please?
5. Thanks everyone for all of these questions they are extremely helpful
6. How did everyone find it? I thought it was OK to be honest
7. (Original post by lanky)
How did everyone find it? I thought it was OK to be honest
yh I guess. tbh it was easier than I expected except for that question on interaction pairs where it said that gravity pulled the rocket down and then it asked what the other force was acting on

I thought it was air, because:

AIR*
8. I thought the physics was difficult but the bio and chem were much better.

That question where it said 'Using energy rules, what is the max speed...' I had NO idea
9. I found the paper quite easy, apart from the Physics part :|
10. (Original post by Ears)
I thought the physics was difficult but the bio and chem were much better.

That question where it said 'Using energy rules, what is the max speed...' I had NO idea
Same, I just left that blank... That's 3 marks I've lost already >.> And that momentum question I just guessed. Invigilators said 'pens down' and I was still writing. Haha xD
Same, I just left that blank... That's 3 marks I've lost already &gt;.&gt; And that momentum question I just guessed. Invigilators said 'pens down' and I was still writing. Haha xD
It was just those physics questions; more explaining that there usually is :/
The biology section was straightforward though
12. (Original post by Ears)
It was just those physics questions; more explaining that there usually is :/
The biology section was straightforward though
Yeah, I was so happy about that. Surprisingly it was easier than I thought. On the core ideas in context the biology section was the hardest so I was getting worried...
Yeah, I was so happy about that. Surprisingly it was easier than I thought. On the core ideas in context the biology section was the hardest so I was getting worried...
Yeah, I think I probably got a high A or A*, so I'm happy. I could have revised more tbh, but I had history in the morning which was a lot more to remember.

Any exams left now? (The 6's I guess )
14. (Original post by Ears)
Yeah, I think I probably got a high A or A*, so I'm happy. I could have revised more tbh, but I had history in the morning which was a lot more to remember.

Any exams left now? (The 6's I guess )
Oh how was History? I heard one of the sources was right at the back of the page and most people didn't see it (if you did Edexcel). And yeah, I have the 5s and 6s left T_T What about you? And since I pretty much crammed for this exam the day before, I expect no more than an A. I'd be quite happy with an A tbh, as long as it still allows me to get an A* overall lol
15. anyone have revision material for unit 5 ?!??!
or tips on how to understand the chem section
i really do not get it ........
16. I Hated That Exam - Core One Was Easier
I Messed Up On The Chemistry Coz I Didn't Know There Was An Extra Question At The Back
Didn't Like The Physics One Either (Wasn't Hard But Nothing Related That Much To The Article - Jus General P4 Knowledge)
Biology Unit Woz Ok

I Don't Know If Any Of U Lot Felt This Way But Me And My Friends Agree Sayin That None Of The Questions Referred To The Article - It Woz General Knowledge That U Shud Have Known For B6,P4 And C5 ?

The Main Thing Is I Never Have 2 Do Another Ideas In Context Ever AGAIN!!! XD

Aah Well I've Got B3,C3,P3 Next Friday (17th June)
And Den My Final Science Exam B6,C6,P6 On Wednesday (22nd June)

BTW My Teacher Told Me U Only Need 19 For a C
So It Must Have Been Hard As Last Year It Was 21 For a C!!

Good Luk Everyone

Majid
17. (Original post by Ears)
Hmm well, I have mine for Additional 21st Century Science?
Biology: Brain, mind and memory
Physics: Forces and rockets
Chemistry: Copper in mobiles etc.

Anyone doing these ones? We can discuss
Yeah, I took this exam a week or so ago, So if you still wanna talk about it I took it
18. (Original post by SophieHannahC)
Yeah, I took this exam a week or so ago, So if you still wanna talk about it I took it
Sure
I found the physics quite difficult. I didn't get the 'what's the velocity when it hits the ground' questions and I think I lost a few marks on the Physics question. The biology is easy, I reckon I got most of that right. And then the chemistry was mostly easy, with one hard question I think.
How did you find it?
19. (Original post by Ears)
Sure
I found the physics quite difficult. I didn't get the 'what's the velocity when it hits the ground' questions and I think I lost a few marks on the Physics question. The biology is easy, I reckon I got most of that right. And then the chemistry was mostly easy, with one hard question I think.
How did you find it?
No I think I guessed that one too to be honest, but I took a whack at the physics and yeah I agree the biology was quite simple, apart from the one about how are the impulses transmitted or something, what did you put for that? and yeah the chemistry was what i was worried about and it was fine, one of the questions was in the booklet wasn't it?

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