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    (Original post by iturhs)
    hey does anyone hve an idea of what the 12 marker is going to be ?
    any teacher predictions ?
    Unfortunately I can't help you there. Absolutely no idea!
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    Hi guys. :\ I've got my unit 4 this Tuesday. I'm so scared, I don't know any of my Issues and Debates and I've only just started on Clinical because I've got maths the day before so I've been revising for that. T_T I'm terrible at evaluating as well, and apparently it's what the unit 4 exam's all about so I'm terrified atm, ahh I can't wait till it's all over.

    How many exams have you all got left?
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    Good luck everyone!! :woo: Only one to go after this!


    (Original post by Nibbl3s)
    Hi guys. :\ I've got my unit 4 this Tuesday. I'm so scared, I don't know any of my Issues and Debates and I've only just started on Clinical because I've got maths the day before so I've been revising for that. T_T I'm terrible at evaluating as well, and apparently it's what the unit 4 exam's all about so I'm terrified atm, ahh I can't wait till it's all over.

    How many exams have you all got left?
    'Ello. I only have the Unit 4 exam to go and then that's all for me. I'm revising it over the weekend and will be mainly focusing on issues and debates, so if people feel it will help I can post up notes for it. Don't worry too much, issues and debates is mainly evaluation, yes, but it's not like it's all new. I have barely revised it because I redid the unit 2 exam which contains a lot of topics in i&d. You'll be fine, good luck. :hugs:
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    (Original post by briesandwich)
    'Ello. I only have the Unit 4 exam to go and then that's all for me. I'm revising it over the weekend and will be mainly focusing on issues and debates, so if people feel it will help I can post up notes for it. Don't worry too much, issues and debates is mainly evaluation, yes, but it's not like it's all new. I have barely revised it because I redid the unit 2 exam which contains a lot of topics in i&d. You'll be fine, good luck. :hugs:
    Wow i'm so glad i found this thread! Not freaking out so much now. Have to cram everything in the next 3 days :cool: would love it if you could post your notes!! thank you!

    For the Evidence in Practice for clinical, what did people do? I haven't done it yet but think i'm going to do a leaflet on 'Is CBT all its cracked up to be?' which i don't really know what i have to include for it, (unless there is a much simpler one to do?) and i also don't know what the key issue is on (our teacher left and did not cover this part..) would that also be on 'Is CBT all it's cracked up to be?' And if so how would it be laid out for the 12/18 mark question? Would really appreciate any notes/help on this!! :confused: Thanks! x
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    Oh and i'm not actually gonna make the leaflet. That's just a waste of time. So what do I need to say about it?!?! Sorry for all the questions. x
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    (Original post by Nadima)

    P.S FEEL FREE EVERYONE TO READ FROM MY UNIT 4 NOTES ATTACHED HERE IF YOU WANT SOME NOTES TO REVISE FROM..just want to make it clear
    Thank you so much!!

    Would you happen to have notes for Clinical Psychology?? I am really missing a few gaps would be much appreciated! xx
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    (Original post by Nibbl3s)
    Hi guys. :\ I've got my unit 4 this Tuesday. I'm so scared, I don't know any of my Issues and Debates and I've only just started on Clinical because I've got maths the day before so I've been revising for that. T_T I'm terrible at evaluating as well, and apparently it's what the unit 4 exam's all about so I'm terrified atm, ahh I can't wait till it's all over.

    How many exams have you all got left?
    Unit 4 will be my final one!
    You seem to have the same weaknesses as me lol, I don't know issues and debates either!
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    why would someone give me a negative rating? just looking for help
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    (Original post by briesandwich)
    x

    (Original post by lozzyhickers)
    x
    I feel so much better now, thank you ladies! :gigg: Still a little panicky about having to revise everything over today and tomorrow but it's the last exam so ahh! :grin: Do you reckon it's even possible though? My teacher this term was new and didn't know her stuff at all so I hardly ever even bothered turning up to her classes :flute: so I'm reading the Edexcel Psychology book by Christine Brain right now and half the stuff I'm seeing is new to me! I reallllly hope I don't screw up because I only just secured 3 A's in the previous units so if I muck up this one I'll be really, REALLY bummed. :sigh:
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    (Original post by yasmin-alica)
    Thank you so much!!

    Would you happen to have notes for Clinical Psychology?? I am really missing a few gaps would be much appreciated! xx
    You're welcome
    Yeahh, I do but it's handwritten unfortunately..I'm so sorry
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    I did Edexcel French yesterday, just to put my 10 pence worth in...but obviously we're not allowed to talk about it yet
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    (Original post by Nadima)
    You're welcome
    Yeahh, I do but it's handwritten unfortunately..I'm so sorry
    Ahh no worries thank you anyway!

    Does anyone have any help on the clinical key issue / evidence of practice please?

    Or on community care as a treatment for schizophrenia? :confused: Xxx
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    Unit 4 Psychology is looking to be my hardest exam not looking forward to it at all...

    How's everyone's revision going?
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    Hello all, took today of work for some serious psychology revising, this is my last exam and I am bricking it. Need to get a B otherwise bye bye Sheffield

    I got a C in unit 3 but high Bs in my AS grades so I decided not to retake it. Kind of kicking myself now.

    Today I want to revise key issues, animal ethics and maybe some contributions. There is so much to revise though! My application is clinical and I'm pretty confident about this part of the paper, I'm hoping we get a juicy Q on our practical as I can blag that to the moon...

    What are peoples revising methods? I'm just making lots and lots of posters that I will read over monday.
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    (Original post by pixiebot)
    Hello all, took today of work for some serious psychology revising, this is my last exam and I am bricking it. Need to get a B otherwise bye bye Sheffield

    I got a C in unit 3 but high Bs in my AS grades so I decided not to retake it. Kind of kicking myself now.

    Today I want to revise key issues, animal ethics and maybe some contributions. There is so much to revise though! My application is clinical and I'm pretty confident about this part of the paper, I'm hoping we get a juicy Q on our practical as I can blag that to the moon...

    What are peoples revising methods? I'm just making lots and lots of posters that I will read over monday.
    I'm just reading over my notes and spider diagrams really

    So, how did people find the exam? Not too bad eh?!
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    So I'm going to write these things up as I go along, so far I've covered Contributions to Society and Ethics, so here we go.

    (As well as this, I've attached a lovely checklist for both Clinical and Issues and Debates. You can tick as you revise each one. Fun, no?)

    Contributions to Society
    Spoiler:
    Show

    Reducing Prejudice
    • Prejudice is when we act against individuals in a group based on our negative stereotypes of them.
    • The Social Approach explains this as being due to Social Identity Theory (SIT)

    1. Social Categorisation: We categorise ourselves as a member of a group.
    2. Social Identification: We adopt the urs, of the ingroup, such as clothing and behaviours. This leads to seeing those who do not belong in the group as part of an outgroup.
    3. Social Comparison: We see our group as superior (ingroup favouritism) and this can lead to rivalary and hostility between groups.


    Evaluation
    Tajfel and Sherif found that two rivalling groups were able to work together towards a subordinate goal, suggesting we can use this to improve relations between groups in society.
    Studies used either laboratory experiments or field experiments where there were clear controls in place, with a measurable IV and DV, so reliable cause and effect can be drawn.

    However, it does not take into account the history of some feuds, which make it hard to completely remove groups from society.
    As well as this, SIT ignores Real Conflict Theory, when rivalry occurs due to competition for resources.


    Understanding Obedience
    • Milgram suggested his Agency Theory, which explains that when we are in an agentic state we believe we are acting as an a'gent' for someone in authority. We obey orders even if it goes against our moral values (moral strain occurs at this point).
    • In the autonomous state, we have free will and feel responsible for our own actions.


    Evaluation
    It has support from Milgram (1963) and Hofling's Nurses (1966) who both used authority figures to give orders.
    It helps explain situations such as the Holocaust and why individuals such as Adolf Eichmann argued they were just 'obeying orders' given by Hitler.

    It doesn't explain, however, why 35% of the pps in Milgrams study did not go to 450v.
    There are other influences of obedience. such as support from others and moral values. It doesn't explain these other influences in the different states.


    The Cognitive Interview
    • Made by Geiselman to assist police to obtain accurate details from witnesses of crime.
    • This helps society as it improves the chances of catching criminals.

    There are Four Steps to the Cognitive Interview
    1. The witness must reinstate feelings and context felt at the time of the event.
    2. They tell the story with FULL DETAIL, even if they seem irrelevant.
    3. They recall the event in a different order.
    4. They recall the event from a different point of view, for example, from the point of view of another witness.


    Evaluation
    Fisher et al. (1990) found it increased recall by 46%, with 90% more accuracy.
    It is widely used by the police in both the US and in Europe, with adaptations.

    It can't overcome aspects of memory, such as weapon focus and problems with reconstructive memory, as this is unconscious and cannot be changed.
    It may be considered unethical to push someone into reinstating emotions of a traumatic event. For example, it would be easy to understand that someone would become incredibly distressed when recalling the events of a murder, and this goes against ethical guidelines.


    CBT
    • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a treatment for mental illness based on the cognitive approach. It looks at addressing automatic, negative thoughts triggered by learned experiences. It works on the principle that what we think produces a feeling, which then leads to an emotion and then a behaviour.
    • It benefits society as mental illness is often expensive as it prevents people working, and treating these illnesses will help them function more successfully in everyday life.


    Evaluation
    CBT is funded for by the NHS and therefore it is easily assessable to the general public.
    It works on teaching strategies to the client to address their negative thoughts. This means they are in control and they can continue applying this techniques even after therapy as ended.
    There is said to be objectivity as the therapist does not impose their own views to the client and empirical evidence gathered is explored by the client.

    They must be cognitively able to carry out homework tasks and identify thoughts, so it is not always suitable.
    If the client doesn't feel they are responsible for their own improvement they are less likely to have long term benefits. (Delsignore et al. 2008) They may feel the therapist is responsible for their improvement.


    Success of Psychoanalysis
    • Psychoanalysis is a treatment used for mental illness, and works on Freud's idea that the unconscious influences our behaviour, and that we must make these unconscious thoughts conscious to be able to deal with them and move on.
    • It helps society maintain good mental health.


    Evaluation
    It is over 100 years old and is still used today. It is built on by the Object Relations School and has led to other practical applications and theories.
    It is holistic - it looks at every aspect of the individuals life.

    It is expensive. An average session is around £60-£100 and therefore it is not as assessable as therapies such as CBT. Also, the therapist must go through psychoanalysis themselves, which takes time.
    It is not built on scientific foundations. The unconscious and symbols in dreams are not measurable, and analysis of these can be vulnerable to subjectivity.


    Understanding Gender
    • We have gender differences, which occur in the phallic stage of psychosexual development. For boys, they go through the oedipus complex which involves the desire for the mother, and the intense jealousy of the father. They go through castration fear as they believe they will be punished for these thoughts.
    • They overcome this complex by identifying with the father, which is how we develop gender roles.


    Evaluation
    Little Han's showed evidence for the oedipus complex when he played with dolls. When playing 'family', he was the father, his own mother was the mother and his father was the grandfather. This showed his desire for his mother.
    There is evidence that women marry men like their fathers, and that men marry women like their mothers. (Connor and Brown, 2007)

    The oedipus complex is not measurable and therefore cannot objectively be tested. This makes it unscientific.
    Freud's theory is based on his own research, and it can be argued that it is vulnerable to researcher bias. As well as this, he gathered evidence from his work with emotionally disturbed, Jewish women, therefore it can be hard to generalise this to others.


    PET Scanning
    • PET Scanning can be used as scientific evidence for society.
    • It involves injecting an individual with a radioactive tracer and a substance such as glucose, and monitoring it's activity in the brain. We create images from this and they are analysed.
    • This improves society as health problems are generally expensive and distressing.


    Evaluation
    It is objective and scientific. Can be repeated by reprinting pictures and tested for reliability.
    It is more ethical than more invasive treatments such as brain surgery, so we are minimising distress.

    It cannot pinpoint precise areas of activity.
    It is hard to say whether brain differences are there from birth, or due to behaviours. (Raine et al. 1997 shows this difficulty.)


    Understanding Gender
    • The biological approach explains gender using hormones and genes.
    • Each egg has an X chromosome and a sperm has either an X or Y chromosome.
    • When XX is formed, this creates a female, leading to the production of oestrogen and the development of the ovaries.
    • When XY occurs, this creates a male, who releases androgens such as testosterone to help develop the testes.
    • It helps to identifiy problems with gender assignment, and how we can treat them.


    Evaluation
    Findings are measurable and testable, so there is reliability and they do not need interpretation.
    The explanation is reliable as those who are wrongly assigned at birth (XO, Turner's Syndrome) have similar symptoms and observable differences.

    Biological approaches do not take into account nurture to the same extent as the learning and psychodynamic explanations of gender.
    A lot of studies on gender, such as injecting testosterone into rats, are animal studies and we can argue that these results can't be generalised to humans.


    Systematic Desensitisation
    • A treatment for phobias, based on the learning approach.
    • It involves creating a hierarchy of fear and gradually exposing a client to these fearful situations.
    • When doing so, they are taught relaxation techniques and practice remaining calm when in the fearful scenerios.
    • This helps society by treating phobias which previously did not allow normal functioning.


    Evaluation
    It is ethical as the client is in control, and informed consent is obtained.
    SD can be self administered and therefore can be free and taught at the individuals own pace.

    It is not suitable for clients who are unable to relax, and are unable to control their thoughts and emotions.
    It doesn't take into account the survival aspect of some phobias.
    It is not suitable for some phobias which cannot be broken down into a hierarchy, such as social phobia. The client and therapist are restricted to the confines of the room.


    Token Economy Programmes (TEP)
    • Based on operant conditioning.
    • Involves the administration of tokens (rewards) as secondary reinforcement when agreed upon desired heaviours are displayed.
    • This is a way to control antisocial behaviour and therefore benefits society by reducing recidivism.


    Evaluation
    It is cost effective and time effective as there is no professional training needed and therefore all staff can e quickly trained.
    Those who find it hard to concentrate on their thoughts and have little insight into emotions can have their behaviour shaped using TEP rather than using cognitive therapies.

    However, there are ethical issues such as social control. Someone can have their basic rights taken away leading to learnt helplessness - when they feel like they have no choice but to comply and show desired behaviour.
    It can be hard to generalise behaviours to outside the institution, as in real life rewards are a lot more subtle and less consistent.


    Offender Profiling
    • Offender profiling involves building on evidence seen in crime scnes as a way to create a profile of the criminal, including characteristics, age, motives etc.
    • David Canter is well known in Britian for his development of OP.
    • Society benefits from the capture of criminals, which OP helps.


    Evaluation
    Offender profiling saves police time as it narrows down aspects of the criminal they are searching for. It is usually used in high profile cases where the individual is dangerous and quick capture is needed.
    It is holistic as it looks as every aspect of the crime scene and therefore no detail is likely to be missed.

    It is hard to investigate the effectiveness of OP as it is not the only aspect of a police investigation.
    The approaches differ. Therefore it is idiosyncratic and not scientific.


    Daycare
    • Daycare has been researched in great length not just for parents, but for the government.
    • If the daycare is bad and leads to antisocial behaviour, society must deal with this later on.
    • If it is good, parents can be confident returning to work, which benefits society.
    • However, studies into daycare with contrasting results which are due to differing quality of care and consistency of care.


    Evaluation
    There is evidence from famous studies such as Headstart in America (1960s), which showed the IQs of 3-6 year olds who attended their daycare rose by at least 10 points, and they were more likely to be employed later in life.
    As well as this, evidence towards towards uses a variety of methods such as interviews, tests and observations etc. which attempt to cover all variables and therefore can be high in validity as a result.

    There are many variables in a daycare setting (staff, toys, location etc) and it is hard to create a study which takes all of these into account.
    They have a lack of controls, each daycare is unique and therefore we cannot replicate or generalise results.
    Different countries show different levels of benefit, those in Sweden benefit greater from daycare due to the high amount of funding.


    Understanding Schizophrenia
    • Treating and understanding mental illness benefits communities, families and the individual.
    • There is a cost element to poor health and we can minimise this by treating with antipsychotic drugs.


    Evaluation
    Those who take antipsychotic drugs have reduced positive symptoms, which provides support for the dopamine hypothesis. This helps individuals function better in everyday life.
    Other treatments such as care in the community take into account the social aspect of mental illness such as labelling and therefore by providing social support helps prevent stigma.

    It can be argued that only society benefits from drug treatment, as sufferers complain of not feeling themselves.
    There are different types of sz such as catatonic and disorganised, which may have different causes. This makes it hard to explain the illness.


    If I get time I will write up ethics later, but I haven't had a break today so I'm off for a kip.
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: docx issues and debates checklist to be completed.docx (14.2 KB, 148 views)
  2. File Type: docx clinical.docx (13.6 KB, 103 views)
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    Hey, if anyone did Child psychology, what did they write about in the essay question about the child-rearing styles and attachment stuff? I'm not sure if I done the essay correctly cus I done 3 paragraphs on the different types of attachments and then wrote about research in different cultures on attachments such as Japan, Israel and Germany and which attachment those cultures find the most dominant and then done a conclusion about how different cultures have different views on which attachment they find dominant.
    I'm so confused..does anyone think they know if this is correct?
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    (Original post by briesandwich)
    So I'm going to write these things up as I go along, so far I've covered Contributions to Society and Ethics, so here we go.
    This is really helpful, thank you for sharing! I lost all my contribution notes last week, they fell out of my car... (don't ask) so I am kind of freakin out about them.

    I'm happy with depression/schizophrenia, was just going to go over the therapies this afternoon and also animal exp ethics.

    I'm having so much trouble remembering which studies go with which research method tho!
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    (Original post by pixiebot)
    This is really helpful, thank you for sharing! I lost all my contribution notes last week, they fell out of my car... (don't ask) so I am kind of freakin out about them.

    I'm happy with depression/schizophrenia, was just going to go over the therapies this afternoon and also animal exp ethics.

    I'm having so much trouble remembering which studies go with which research method tho!
    Omg, same with me!! How on earth do they expect us to remember so many studies?! It's so damn confusing!
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    (Original post by Nadima)
    Omg, same with me!! How on earth do they expect us to remember so many studies?! It's so damn confusing!
    It's mad! Do we actually have to know all the studies in detail and key issues as we knew them from the previous approaches?! Way too much info if we do :eek: I have a specification but it doesn't specify how many marks worth of info we need for all of it so i don't know whether to learn them briefly or overload my brain with all of it ha. Anyone else wondering the same? X
 
 
 
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