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    This is just a general thread about A - Level Law...

    I was quite shocked when I got my results back from AQA LAW01 in March, I got an E when I was expecting a good B!

    Was anyone else shocked by their results?

    Also, does anyone got any good revision tips, because out of my five subject I find this one this hardest to revise for!

    I'm now doing the Law02 revision ready for the exam (25th May)

    Generel comments about Law in general are welcome, and those who are planning to do a Law degree
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    I got exactly the same... Was expecting an A, ended up getting one off a D
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    There were like 6 E's and some U's in our class of able students!
    And only one person got a C...

    It is so weird
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    In my class, there were 3 A's, some C's and the rest were U's and E's.

    I got an A, I was expecting a D because I thought I did pretty bad.

    I think the best thing to do for revision is just a lot of past-papers because the questions are more or less the same, even if you you know the facts, practice good exam techniques because the way you put those facts into the papers could be the difference between an E-C or an A-B.
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    (Original post by liam1994)
    This is just a general thread about A - Level Law...

    I was quite shocked when I got my results back from AQA LAW01 in March, I got an E when I was expecting a good B!

    Was anyone else shocked by their results?

    Also, does anyone got any good revision tips, because out of my five subject I find this one this hardest to revise for!

    I'm now doing the Law02 revision ready for the exam (25th May)

    Generel comments about Law in general are welcome, and those who are planning to do a Law degree
    I got two As last year for Law01 (Statutory Interpretation, Delegated Legislation, Judicial Precedent and Criminal Courts and Lay People) and Law02 (Criminal Liability and Tort) so I would be happy to answer any queries regarding either of these exams

    Normally what can happen when you expect a decent grade is you talk about everything there is to know about a topic but don't apply it to the scenario, or talk about material that is irrelevant so you leave the exam thinking you did really well when you didn't really talk about what is required.

    I would strongly advise buying the AQA Law for AS textbook which has everything you need to know for whichever topic you study on the syllabus, especially if your class notes you are receiving aren't getting you the grades you need.

    Lots of past paper practice doesn't go amiss either. It's boring but it will get you into the swing of how to answer questions appropriately.

    You could also use flash cards to write cases on and mix them up and try and put them under the correct topic or with the case decisions etc.
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    i to got it and was done with A..
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    (Original post by SpicyStrawberry)
    I got two As last year for Law01 (Statutory Interpretation, Delegated Legislation, Judicial Precedent and Criminal Courts and Lay People) and Law02 (Criminal Liability and Tort) so I would be happy to answer any queries regarding either of these exams

    Normally what can happen when you expect a decent grade is you talk about everything there is to know about a topic but don't apply it to the scenario, or talk about material that is irrelevant so you leave the exam thinking you did really well when you didn't really talk about what is required.

    I would strongly advise buying the AQA Law for AS textbook which has everything you need to know for whichever topic you study on the syllabus, especially if your class notes you are receiving aren't getting you the grades you need.

    Lots of past paper practice doesn't go amiss either. It's boring but it will get you into the swing of how to answer questions appropriately.

    You could also use flash cards to write cases on and mix them up and try and put them under the correct topic or with the case decisions etc.
    do you have any tips for exam technique? im kind of struggling at the moment. would appreciate anything you could offer.!!
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    (Original post by whattheheck)
    do you have any tips for exam technique? im kind of struggling at the moment. would appreciate anything you could offer.!!
    In Law02 there tends to be quite a lot of short answer questions about what causation is or the contemporaneity rule, duty of care etc so I would definitely recommend learning the definitions well and include case examples. Make sure you hone your application skills with the scenarios because the marks are focused on how well you apply the law to the given scenario.

    Don't spend too long on each question - 1 mark per minute is recommended so you can comfortably finish the exam.

    Don't include irrelevant information because this won't gain you any credit.

    When naming cases you don't need to remember the year so don't panic about that, but make sure you write what the case showed. If you can't remember the name either, just say "the case where [facts of case] happened it was decided [case decision]" to put across your point.

    If you need any more help I will be happy to go through it with you
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    (Original post by SpicyStrawberry)
    In Law02 there tends to be quite a lot of short answer questions about what causation is or the contemporaneity rule, duty of care etc so I would definitely recommend learning the definitions well and include case examples. Make sure you hone your application skills with the scenarios because the marks are focused on how well you apply the law to the given scenario.

    Don't spend too long on each question - 1 mark per minute is recommended so you can comfortably finish the exam.

    Don't include irrelevant information because this won't gain you any credit.

    When naming cases you don't need to remember the year so don't panic about that, but make sure you write what the case showed. If you can't remember the name either, just say "the case where [facts of case] happened it was decided [case decision]" to put across your point.

    If you need any more help I will be happy to go through it with you
    I tried to pos rep you but apparently i have "reached my limit" but i will tomorrow for your helpful tips!
    I'm with AQA and i'm basically doing the whole a-level this summer so you can imagine the amount of pressure im under. lucky for me my exams are spread across a month. but with law i feel lik i havent mastered the technique. i guess it comes with a lot of practice really. how did you go about learning the content?
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    (Original post by whattheheck)
    I tried to pos rep you but apparently i have "reached my limit" but i will tomorrow for your helpful tips!
    I'm with AQA and i'm basically doing the whole a-level this summer so you can imagine the amount of pressure im under. lucky for me my exams are spread across a month. but with law i feel lik i havent mastered the technique. i guess it comes with a lot of practice really. how did you go about learning the content?
    Ouch, a lot of exams then!

    For A2 I actually find it a bit easier to learn the stuff because you can separate the info out into each of the offences and you don't need to worry about definitions so much e.g. what actus reus means. The AS exams are more fiddly!

    For my notes on Law03 I could put some on here to show you how I laid them out if that would be of any use to you? It worked for me but different people have different ways of learning! The Law03 and 04 exams are better I think because although the questions are longer, the structure is simpler.

    The best thing to do at A2 is consider the offences as they occur, talk about the actus reus and apply it to the scenario, then talk about the mens rea and apply it, and then if there are any relevant defences talk about them towards the end and reach a conclusion.

    That's the best technique for the scenarios in Law03 and Law04 anyway I've found.
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    (Original post by SpicyStrawberry)
    Ouch, a lot of exams then!

    For A2 I actually find it a bit easier to learn the stuff because you can separate the info out into each of the offences and you don't need to worry about definitions so much e.g. what actus reus means. The AS exams are more fiddly!

    For my notes on Law03 I could put some on here to show you how I laid them out if that would be of any use to you? It worked for me but different people have different ways of learning! The Law03 and 04 exams are better I think because although the questions are longer, the structure is simpler.

    The best thing to do at A2 is consider the offences as they occur, talk about the actus reus and apply it to the scenario, then talk about the mens rea and apply it, and then if there are any relevant defences talk about them towards the end and reach a conclusion.

    That's the best technique for the scenarios in Law03 and Law04 anyway I've found.
    oo notes would be really helpful!!

    what other subjects do you do?

    to make it worse i am actually self-taught!!! talk about stressful!!!
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    (Original post by whattheheck)
    oo notes would be really helpful!!

    what other subjects do you do?

    to make it worse i am actually self-taught!!! talk about stressful!!!
    Here are some notes on the non-fatal offences (they can be used for Law02 and Law03) where applicable:

    Assault

    An assault is committed when the defendant either intentionally or recklessly causes the victim to apprehend immediate and unlawful violence.

    Actus Reus:
    An act causing the victim to apprehend immediate and unlawful violence.

    An act: An act or words from the defendant must cause the fear. An assault cannot be committed by an omission.

    ? Constanza Words alone can be an assault.

    ? Ireland; Burstow Silent telephone calls can be an assault. The case of immediacy is made if the victim fears the possibility of an immediate attack and the fear need not be rational.

    ? Tuberville v Savage Words can negate an assault.

    Causing: Causation.

    Apprehend: An offence has not been committed unless the victim apprehends immediate force, but need not fear immediate force. ‘Apprehend’ means to anticipate violence.

    Immediate: This means ‘within a minute or two’, as said by Lord Steyn. In Smith v Chief Superintendant, Woking Police Station the fear of what the defendant might be likely to do next was sufficiently immediate for the purposes of the offence.

    Unlawful violence: The victim is not required to apprehend any injury, pain or harm for the purposes of proving an assault, so this is misleading.

    Mens Rea:
    Intention to cause the victim to apprehend immediate and unlawful violence or recklessness as to whether such apprehension is caused. Intent can be direct or oblique, and the recklessness is Cunningham style recklessness so the defendant must realise that their acts or words could cause the victim to apprehend immediate violence.

    Battery

    Actus Reus:
    The application of unlawful physical force on the victim, who need not have to suffer any pain or injury.

    ? Collins v Willcock a slightest touch can amount to a battery. ‘Any touching of another, however slight, may amount to a battery’.

    ? Thomas Touching a person’s clothing is enough for battery.

    Unlawful physical force: If the victim did not consent to the battery it is usually unlawful, however physical contact in everyday situations e.g. jostling in a busy train station to get by would be absurd to consider a battery.

    Indirect batteries: Batteries can be inflicted indirectly as well as directly.

    ? DPP v K Acid in a hand dryer caused an indirect battery.

    ? Haystead v Chief Constable of Derbyshire A woman who dropped her baby after being punched was used as an ‘instrument’ to commit the battery.

    Omissions: Battery can be committed by an omission as in Santana-Bermudez.

    Mens Rea:
    Confirmed in Venna, it is intention to apply force to another or recklessness as to whether such force is so applied. This is only for the physical contact, not any harm.

    s47 ABH

    Actus Reus:
    ‘Assault’ means either assault or battery according to the cases set out for common assault.

    ‘Occasioning’: An assault or battery will only be charged under s.47 if it occasions actual bodily harm. If there is no harm the charge will be under s.39 of the CJA 1988. ‘Occasion’ seems to mean the same as ‘cause’ and the normal rules of causation apply as confirmed in Roberts. Where the defendant directly physically attacks the victim the causation is immediately established and no further discussion is required.

    ‘Actual Bodily Harm’: ‘Actual’ means there must be some form of physical or psychological injury. It can be very minor harm, and in Miller it was described as ‘any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with health or comfort’ that is more than ‘transient and trifling’.

    ? DPP v Smith Hair cut without consent was ABH as it was a serious matter amounting to actual bodily harm. The offence is extended to hurt and damage.

    ? Chan Fook Psychiatric injury can be deemed ABH provided there is expert evidence to prove it is not just ‘mere emotions such as fear, panic or distress’.

    Mens Rea:
    The combined appeal of Savage; Parmenter confirmed that the mens rea for common assault is sufficient to establish the mens rea for s.47.

    ? The mens rea is therefore either intention or recklessness as to causing the victim to apprehend immediate and unlawful violence, or intention or recklessness as to the application of unlawful force. No extra mens rea is required with regards to harm caused by the assault or battery.

    ? R v Roberts The mens rea for s.47 is the same as assault and battery; there is no further requirement to show mens rea in respect of any intention or foresight of harm caused. In this case the defendant made sexual advances causing the victim to jump from the moving car and injure herself.

    s20 GBH/Wounding

    Actus Reus:
    The offence can be committed in two ways: unlawful wounding or unlawful infliction of grievous bodily harm. If the wound also inflicted the grievous bodily harm the prosecution must choose from the two offences depending on which reflects the true nature of the assault.

    ‘Wounding’: Where both layers of skin are broken usually causing blood loss.

    ‘Grievous bodily harm’: An injury that causes serious harm or more than one minor injury that together causes serious harm.

    Wounding: In JCC v Eisenhower a wound must break the continuity of the skin and internal bleeding is not sufficient. Scratches, abrasions and burns will not be considered wounds unless the second layer of skin is broken. Neither will broken bones or internal ruptures.


    GBH: Any bodily harm other than a wounding must be ‘grievous’.

    ? DPP v Smith this means ‘really serious harm’.

    ? Saunders it was held ‘serious harm’ would suffice and ‘really’ was not necessary.

    Psychiatric injury can be GBH provided it is sufficiently serious as in Burstow where the victim had severe depression after an accumulation of incidents.

    R v Bollom Injuries caused to a child or elderly person will be more serious than the same caused to a strong healthy adult.

    R v Dica Biological GBH can be caused with the transmission of HIV to an unknowing victim.

    Brown and Stratton Minor injuries which as a whole amount to serious harm constitute GBH.

    The GBH must be ‘inflicted’ on the victim, and Ireland ruled there was no necessity to apply direct or indirect force. The prosecution need only prove that the defendant caused the victim to suffer GBH. ‘Inflict’ has the same meaning as ‘cause’ and they are interchangeable.

    Unlawfulness: A lack of consent will normally render the act unlawful.

    Mens Rea:
    The wounding or GBH must be done ‘maliciously’ which means for s.20 intending harm or being reckless as to whether such harm might occur as confirmed in Cunningham.

    ? R v Mowatt The prosecution need not prove the defenant foresaw or intended the wound or GBH. The case is proved provided the defendant intended or foresaw some harm might occur.

    ? R v Grimshaw The defendant struck the victim in the face with a glass causing considerable injury. The victim foreseeably suffered at least some harm.

    ? R v Adaye The level of knowledge the defendant had when he went on to infect a woman with HIV was sufficient to show he acted recklessly.

    s18 GBH/Wounding

    Actus Reus:
    Unlawfully wounding or causing grievous bodily harm to the victim. The meanings of ‘wound’ and ‘GBH’ are the same as for s.20 and the rules of causation apply.

    Unlawfulness: The wound or GBH must be unlawful, like for s.20 of the OAPA 1861

    Mens Rea:
    Only intention will suffice for s.18, and instead of some harm it must be proven that the defendant intended to cause grievous bodily harm, and any wounding must be through intending to cause grievous harm. If the defendant intended serious harm but the wounding was only minor they can be convicted under s.18.

    Direct and oblique intent apply for s.18, so the test in Nedrick where if the defendant foresaw grievous bodily harm was virtually certain to result from their conduct they will be liable under s.18.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    I hope this helps
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    (Original post by liam1994)
    This is just a general thread about A - Level Law...

    I was quite shocked when I got my results back from AQA LAW01 in March, I got an E when I was expecting a good B!

    Was anyone else shocked by their results?

    Also, does anyone got any good revision tips, because out of my five subject I find this one this hardest to revise for!

    I'm now doing the Law02 revision ready for the exam (25th May)

    Generel comments about Law in general are welcome, and those who are planning to do a Law degree
    There's a great big discussion about how odd the AQA marks seemed to be this year here: http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...hlight=AQA+Law
 
 
 
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