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    (Original post by 41jms)
    does ester hydrolysis require reflux?
    H+(aq) or OH-(aq) under reflux

    have no idea about the second question
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    (Original post by 41jms)
    does ester hydrolysis require reflux?
    Esters can be hydrolysed with either an acid or an alkali, and both ways require the reaction to be performed under reflux.
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    (Original post by Adam9)
    Esters can be hydrolysed with either an acid or an alkali, and both ways require the reaction to be performed under reflux.
    :lolwut: you sure?
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    thats true
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    True
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    anyone know about molecular recognition?
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    what will be a model answer as to why there is a ring of delocalised electrons inside the benzene?
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    (Original post by pav)
    what will be a model answer as to why there is a ring of delocalised electrons inside the benzene?
    One electron from each carbon is delocalised across the whole ring and structure. Electrons are arranged in 2 rings above and below the plane of the molecule.
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    We need to know the experiments? E.g. outline acid-base titration, t.l.c, recrystallisation, colorimetry, refluxing, standard electrode potential, carrying out organic prep? G.l.C is the obvious one of course, unsure about there though
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    (Original post by pav)
    what will be a model answer as to why there is a ring of delocalised electrons inside the benzene?
    - Each Carbon atom in the ring has four outer electrons.
    - 3 of these electrons are involved in covalent bonding. (2 with the carbons next door in the ring and one hydrogen atom).
    - One of the four electrons is not involved in bonding
    - Theses electrons are evenly spread throughout the molecule forming a ring of delocalised electrons above and below the plane of the molecule.
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    (Original post by Adam9)
    Esters can be hydrolysed with either an acid or an alkali, and both ways require the reaction to be performed under reflux.

    (Original post by xshopoholicx)
    thats true

    (Original post by S444NDP)
    True
    Reflux is used the formation of Esters.


    From the Exclusively endorsed Revision Guide
    Hydrolysis of Esters
    Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a molecule by water - it is the reverse of esterification. The hydrolysis of an ester can be carried out using an acid catalyst (such as sulphuric acid) or an alkili catalyst (such as sodium hydroxide). Alkaline hydrolysis is usually preferred because the reaction goes to completion.
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    (Original post by pav)
    what will be a model answer as to why there is a ring of delocalised electrons inside the benzene?
    - each carbon in the ring forms three bonds
    - so one electron from each carbon becomes delocalised across the ring
    - the delocalised electrons are in the p-orbital, so form rings of delocalisation above and below the plane
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    (Original post by joestevens2092)
    We need to know the experiments? E.g. outline acid-base titration, t.l.c, recrystallisation, colorimetry, refluxing, standard electrode potential, carrying out organic prep? G.l.C is the obvious one of course, unsure about there though
    I think we need to know about distillation and refluxing to as well as G.LC. Dont think we need to know the rest.
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    (Original post by zahre)
    - Each Carbon atom in the ring has four delocalised electrons.- 3 of these electrons are involved in covalent bonding. (2 with the carbons next door in the ring and one hydrogen atom).
    - One of the four electrons is not involved in bonding
    - Theses electrons are evenly spread throughout the molecule forming a ring of delocalised electrons above and below the plane of the molecule.
    Noo, each carbon has four electrons in its outer shell, but all four are NOT delocalised.

    Although the rest is right
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    (Original post by Tetanus)
    Reflux is used the formation of Esters.


    From the Exclusively endorsed Revision Guide
    No if you look in the ummary of organic reactions in the revision guide it actually says heated under reflux
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    (Original post by twelve)
    Noo, each carbon has four electrons in its outer shell, but all four are NOT delocalised.

    Although the rest is right
    Yeah I just noticed that. Typing error. Ive editted it. Lol.
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    (Original post by zahre)
    I think we need to know about distillation and refluxing to as well as G.LC. Dont think we need to know the rest.
    You need to know them all as i have done papers with recrystallisaition and t.l.c on it
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    (Original post by Tetanus)
    :lolwut: you sure?
    Yer, he's right I think it is moderately concentrated acid or alkali, that's what I have down on my big old sheet anyways.
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    It says in the specification:
    'suggest and explain in terms of intermolecular bonds, ionic attractions, and covalent bonding, how some dyes attach themselves to fibres'
    How much detail do we need to know this in and what are the basics because I have no idea :confused:
    Thanks
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    Can i confirm that a dehydration of a alcohol to an Alkene is conc H2S04 refluxed??
 
 
 
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