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    Can anyone please explain to me how nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxides are able to form hydrogen bonds with water?

    Also, what is the overall polarity of a compound containing both nitrogen and oxygen as they both have lone pairs?

    Thanks
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    (Original post by gozatron)
    For esters you can use an acid or an alkali, but yes use Dilute NaOH and reflux the **** out of it.
    If you use alkalis then wont you make the salt of the acid?
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    I'm pooing myself guys can't do curly arrows to save my life
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    (Original post by Conor 419)
    I do both ;D
    Yay I'm not the only oneee
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    (Original post by NSAID)
    Can anyone please explain to me how nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxides are able to form hydrogen bonds with water?

    Also, what is the overall polarity of a compound containing both nitrogen and oxygen as they both have lone pairs?

    Thanks
    CO2 doesn't hydrogen bond directing but when CO2 dissolves and forms HCO3- that can hydrogen bond.

    Depending how many O and N you have. O is more electronegative and has two lone pairs so in general I'd say O would have a slight - charge.


    (Original post by thatgu)
    If you use alkalis then wont you make the salt of the acid?
    Yeh you will, it's still hydrolysis. You'll get an alcohol + a carboxylate salt. Alkali hydrolysis is usually preferred to acid as it goes to completion. Amide hydrolysis is pretty much the same thing. With alkali you'll get and amine and carboxylate salt.
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    conditions and reagent for coupling reaction anyone?
    also for diazoitasation plz
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    The only new specification papers are june 2010,january 2011 and the specimen paper right?
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    (Original post by Rei5)
    conditions and reagent for coupling reaction anyone?
    also for diazoitasation plz
    Dilute HCl and sodium nitrate under 5degrees :]
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    (Original post by SarahTM)
    Dilute HCl and sodium nitrate under 5degrees :]
    + Phenylamine
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    I like the fact that last night I was feeling completely calm, and relatively confident- I went to find my 'exam pencil case', since it's got to be a clear one, and couldn't find it anywhere, turned the house upside down, and when I was finished, was in a massive stress! So it's not the actual exam worrying me, it's whether I will get told off for having a semi see through pencil case! XD

    Although exam nerves have started now...
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    Feeling a bit wrorried now. I've done no revision all week for no real reason other then my lazyness and even now I'm on TSR instead of revising. C4 tomorrow as well :C
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    What are the conditions + reagants for:

    Amine to Amide
    Amide to Amine


    Please, thanks
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    (Original post by Legit)
    What are the conditions + reagants for:

    Amine to Amide
    Amide to Amine


    Please, thanks
    1)Acyl Chloride, room temp
    2) Reflux with Acid or Alkili.
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    Having a panic here about basic things. How do define a primary, secondary, tertiary alcohol? Say for a primary alcohol is it the hydroxyl group is bonded to a carbon with 3 hydrogen atoms attached to it
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    (Original post by MyJunkIsYou)
    Having a panic here about basic things. How do define a primary, secondary, tertiary alcohol? Say for a primary alcohol is it the hydroxyl group is bonded to a carbon with 3 hydrogen atoms attached to it
    Whether its primary, secondary or tertiary depends on the number of carbons the carbon with the OH is bonded to.
    one carbon = Primary, two carbons = secondary, three carbons = tertiary.

    So in your example, yes and this would be methanol. You can also have primary alcohols with 2 Hydrogens bonded to it though, so its best to think in terms of carbons.
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    (Original post by MyJunkIsYou)
    Having a panic here about basic things. How do define a primary, secondary, tertiary alcohol? Say for a primary alcohol is it the hydroxyl group is bonded to a carbon with 3 hydrogen atoms attached to it
    Primary = OH bonded to carbon atom with 2 hydrogens

    Secondary = OH bonded to carbon with 1 hydrogen

    Tertiary = OH bonded to carbon with no hydrogens
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    (Original post by Adam9)
    Primary = OH bonded to carbon atom with 2 hydrogens

    Secondary = OH bonded to carbon with 1 hydrogen

    Tertiary = OH bonded to carbon with no hydrogens
    Cheers. I totally meant primary would be 2 hydrogens. This is what happens when I panic!
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    Anyone know what colour changes we need to know?
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    (Original post by chris3321)
    Anyone know what colour changes we need to know?
    I doubt we'll need many tbh.

    The most likely ones I think will come up are:
    Bromine water ORANGE -> COLOURLESS in presence of unsaturated carbon chains
    Fehlings goes BLUE -> RED ppt in presence of Aldehydes
    Phenols form a PURPLE complex with neutral Iron (III) Chloride solution

    Thats all I can think of really. Theres all the complex colours from the last exam but I really doubt they'd come up.
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    Acidified potassium dichromate orange/yellow to green/blue.
 
 
 
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