Ollyjg
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Anyone doing the experience of warfare topic?
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SBradford
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I would realllllyyyy like a question on the Fall of Cromwell, or whether about whether Cromwell or Wolsey had more influence over the king.
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The Cardinal
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I'm certain Wolsey's influence over the King came up last year, or the year before. It was something like, "How far did Henry surrender control of government to Wolsey?".

Perhaps opposition to the Supremacy?
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charcharchar
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(Original post by Plonk)
I am, and am reasonably confident. I've been getting high A's in timed essays, but I do tend to go blank during exams. I've done up to the first Wilson government so far, and have tomorrow to look over the rest. Good luck to you, and to anyone else doing this exam.

PS, if anyone has any question predictions, please post them.

I think it likely to be on the Labour governments before Thatcher..

last year it was Thatcher & Macmillan
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Emma1994
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Opposition to the supremacy would be a great question! Fall of cromwell would be ok i suppose...
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SBradford
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What sort of stuff would be the fall of Cromwell? Evagelical, the situation with France and HRE and so alliance with Cleves not need, influence from Howard of Norfolk, 6 articles too reformist. Anything else?
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Henry VIII 109
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Could someone post a quick bullet point plan of the points they would use when answering fall of cromwell question? and a brief description of each if you want? haha. bricking it for the exam tomorrow so would appreciate any help. and bullet point plan for opposition to supremacy if anyone feels up for it?
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Emma1994
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6 articles were to reaffirm the Catholic doctrine weren't they? Not reformist?
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SBradford
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Oh, yeah Emma I was thinking of the 10 articles, thanks
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Henry VIII 109
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(Original post by SBradford)
What sort of stuff would be the fall of Cromwell? Evagelical, the situation with France and HRE and so alliance with Cleves not need, influence from Howard of Norfolk, 6 articles too reformist. Anything else?
Could you just clear up what you mean by "situation with France" and "6 articles too reformist"? having a bit of a panic here haha :P thanks
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daizeee
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(Original post by Shakk)
regret taking history :/
Aww same but to late for all that, btw i found some notes for the boer war

The Second Boer War (Great war) 1899-1902

1815 Britain’s gain of the Cape from the Netherlands is confirmed by the Treaty. 1830s Some Dutch settlers leave the Cape and establish the Orange Free State and the Transvaal far to the North following the abolition of slavery by Britain. 1869 Diamonds are discovered at Kimberley and Cecil Rhodes becomes a millionaire. 1877 Transvaal consents to be annexed by Britain due to the states’ bankruptcy and the Zulu threat. 1879 The Zulu War, Britain removes the Zulu threat. 1880-1881 The First Boer War, at the Battle of Majuba Hill a small British force is defeated. 1882-1884 Britain concedes independence to the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. 1886 Gold is discovered in the Transvaal and Johannesburg becomes a boom town. The Liberal Party split as Liberal Unionists leave over Home Rule. 1895 Cecil Rhodes attempts to overthrow the Transvaal Republic in the Jameson Raid. Joseph Chamberlain, a leading Liberal Unionist, joins the Conservative government as Colonial Secretary. 1896 Alfred Harmsworth establishes the Daily Mail. 1897 Sir Alfred Milner arrives in South Africa as British High Commissioner. 1899 May – Milner and Kruger meet for negotiations on the Uitlander problem but the talks fail. August – Britain sends Reinforcements to the Cape. October – The Boer Republics offer an ultimatum to Britain to withdraw troops and declare war on refusal. October – The sieges of Kimberly, Ladysmith, and Mafeking begin. December – Black Week, British forces are defeated in three battles. 1900 January – Buller’s force suffers a new defeat at Spion Kop. February – Roberts relieves Kimberly and Buller finally relieves Ladysmith, there are outbreaks of popular rejoicing in Britain. March – Roberts captures Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State. May – Mafeking is relieved and there is wild rejoicing, Johannesburg is captured. June – Pretoria is occupied by Roberts. October – ‘Khaki’ election, conservatives win a comfortable majority. November – Kitchener takes over to supervise ending the war. 1901 Bitter guerrilla war and clearance of the Boer civilian population. January – Emily Hobhouse in Bloemfontein. June – Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman’s ‘Methods of Barbarism’ speech’. August-December – Fawcett Commission in South Africa. December – Pro-war riot in Birmingham against Lloyd George. 1902 May – Peace of Vereeniging, Boers accept British Imperial sovereignty. 1903 March – Committee of Imperial Defence established. 1904 Esher Enquiry Report published and War Office reorganisation carried through. 1906 January – Liberal landslide. 1906-1912 Haldane reforms the army. Various social reforms inspired by the concept of national efficiency. 1906 Introduction of free school meals. 1907 Medical inspections in schools. 1911 National Health Insurance.


Causes of the war

The Dutch had seized the tip of southern Africa from the Portuguese in the seventeenth century as a key port, settlers followed throughout the next two centuries moving northwards from the Cape and establishing farms by enslaving or driving off the natives. During the Napoleonic Wars the Cape was seized by the British to safeguard the route to India and possession was confirmed in the peace treaties of 1814-1815. British settlers then joined the Boers as farmers and traders. In 1833 Britain abolished slavery throughout her Empire and many Boers resenting this reform and British rule in general moved northward to the interior of Africa. Britain followed and in the 1840s annexed the coast to the northeast of the cape, Natal. The Dutch migrants were called voortrekkers and established the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic. The Dutch were dependent on communication through British territory and so the British recognized the states on the condition that they abandoned slavery.

In the 1870s the British High Commissioner, Sir Bartle Frere, sought to weaken the dominant native power of the Zulus and federate the four white states of the Cape Province, Natal, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal into one Imperial dominion. The Transvaal and Orange Free State agreed to be annexed due to the Zulu power and no funds in the treasury. The Zulu War began in 1879 with a disaster at Isandhlwana where a shortage of screwdrivers, delaying the opening of ammunition boxes, enabled the Zulus to destroy most of the South Wales Borderers. Days later a company of the same regiment was able to inflict a terrible rebuff to the Zulus at Rorke’s Drift with their Martini Henry rifles. The battle of Ulundi of 4th July 1879 totally destroyed the Zulu power.

With the Zulu threat removed the Boers of the Transvaal demanded their independence back. William Gladstone’s government in Britain conceded to Boer demands since forces were fighting in Afghanistan. This came only after the Boers had inflicted a humiliating defeat on 400 British troops at Majuba Hill in February 1881 in what was known as the First Boer War. The Boers believed that a swift attack on the British would be successful in any future conflict and Kruger’s standing within the Transvaal rose.

Vast gold deposits were discovered in the Witwatersrand of the Transvaal in 1886 and by 1898 the Transvaal produced 27% of the world’s gold and millions of mainly British capital had been invested there. Thousands of British immigrants, Uitlanders, went to Johannesburg; they were attracted by the high wages but then were disappointed by the high taxes, inferior services, state corruption, and denial of political rights. The Uitlanders and mine owners preferred Imperial rule and, following the murder of Tom Edgar by a Transvaal policeman in late 1898, the British High Commissioner, Sir Alfred Milner applied pressure to Kruger for reforms and concessions of Civil Rights. In reality Milner and Chamberlain, Colonial Secretary, were using the issue of the Uitlanders to justify a takeover, and Kruger knew it. The gold discoveries made the Boer states more powerful and less dependent on the British, the British were keen to be established as the dominant power in South Africa and ensure that the Cape remained under Imperial control as a key strategic point.

The British reinforced their troops in South Africa and the Boers delivered an ultimatum on 9th October 1899 that the British remove their troops, on refusal the Boers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State declared war.


Comparison of the armies

The British army had increased its numbers since the Crimea and Cardwell’s reforms had made it somewhat more efficient. It was, however, still much smaller that the conscript armies of the continental powers and, man for man, much more expensive. The strength of the British Army was 249,466 regulars with 78,000 reserves. Between 60,000 and 70,000 were stationed in India and another 60,000 were scattered in small Imperial garrisons around the globe. There was a militia of 65,000 and 35,000 of these undertook to be available for service overseas if required. There was also a force of 230,000 poorly trained volunteers who could not legally be sent abroad. There was the Yeomanry; a volunteer cavalry officered by the gentry and drawn from the more wealthy farmers, numbering 10,000 but their main function was the maintenance of internal security.

The regular army was organised into closely bonded regiments, one battalion serving abroad and one battalion training at the regimental depot in Britain. The ordinary soldiers were drawn from the poorest elements of society, often the urban unemployed as the agricultural sector shrank, with a disproportionate number from Ireland and to a lesser extent from Scotland. The social standing of soldiers was low as was their pay and respectable working-class families felt ashamed of those who volunteered often resulting in the soldier being excluded from social events. Tommy Atkins was the nickname given to private soldiers serving in the British infantry since 1843.

The food allowance was generous and it was the regular food and drink that attracted many to army life. Discipline was severe and flogging in wartime was only abandoned in 1881, continuing in military prisons until 1907. Initiative was actively discouraged and as a result soldiers were helpless if asked to deviate from the usual routine. The British army were still trained for close order volley firing that had worked against the Imperial enemies the British had faced in the late nineteenth century. By 1899 the ordinary soldier ware khaki and most were equipped with the new Lee Enfield magazine rifle, which had an excellent range but defective sights. Improvements had been made to supply by the recent creation of the Army Service Corps and the engineering detachments. The Royal Army Medical Corps had been established in 1898 and represented a consolidation and more efficient organisation of medical support.

Despite the abolition of purchase of commission a private income was still deemed to be necessary for an officer to cover mess bills and social life. The British officer corps was still drawn from traditional wealthy families, with intense bravery and loyalty to comrades there was amateurishness to their approach to soldiering. They were not encouraged in professional concern or intellectual curiosity about soldiering but instead were expected to spend their time doing paperwork and participating in sports. The largest failure of the Army was to establish a General Staff as a supreme planning department.

The Boers could call up over 50,000 men; 21,000 from the Orange Free State, 33.000 in the Transvaal Republic, and 500 foreign volunteers. It was a citizen army without uniforms or drill training, the army relied on ponies for transport but each man had an 1896 Mauser rifle and most of them were excellent shots. Discipline was dependent on the personality of the individual commander and each man was able to give an opinion on strategy and tactics. They were organised into Commandos drawn from their own district and each was formed from 200 to 1000 burghers, each with an elected officer. The discovery of gold meant that the military force was equipped with the latest German weapons and £90,000 could be spent on intelligence each year. Britain only spent £11,000 per annum on its entire Empire.


Military action

When the Boers declared war there were only 14,750 British troops in South Africa with reinforcements arriving from India to total 22,000. The new commander was Sir George White who was to be superseded by Sir Redvers Buller when further reinforcements arrived from Britain. By December Buller commanded 84,000 British regulars, the most of which were infantry. Supply depended on the four railways of British South Africa.

The Boers began, while they retained superiority in numbers, with three major offences resulting in sieges. The smallest and least important of these was at Mafeking where a small British force under Colonel Baden-Powell held out against Boer Commandos until May 1900. In Kimberley British troops and the important mine owner and politician Cecil Rhodes were cut off by a Boer force under General Gronje. In Natal Sir George White became cut off, after suffering a series of minor retreats, with a large British force in excess of 30,000 in the town of Ladysmith. Kruger hoped that after inflicting a few defeats on the British they would agree to negotiate as in 1881 and recognise the full independence of the Boer States.

Buller, on arrival at the Cape, split his Army Corps into three. One section, under Lord Methuen, he sent up the Western Railway to relieve Kimberly. A central force, under Gatacre, He intended to use to safeguard the North of the Cape Province and the two other railway lines. He himself proceeded to Natal and there attempted to relieve Ladysmith and Sir George White’s force. All three met defeat in what was known as ‘Black Week’. Gatacre walked into a Boer force holding the railway junction at Stormberg and suffered 135 casualties and had 561 men taken prisoner on 10th December. Methuen the next day struck at Cronje at Magersfontain but, by insisting on a frontal attack, forced his men to come under heavy fire unable to fire back, they also suffered from having to lay in the and ridden mud for 10 hours. Having lost 200 men (including 5 officers killed and 7 more wounded) many from the Highland Brigade Methuen retreated to the Modder River to await reinforcements. In Natal Buller faced a similar defeat at Colenso on 15th December.

Queen Victoria’s government sought a hero to ensure victory. Field Marshal Fredrick Roberts had served in India during the Indian Mutiny, received the Victoria Cross, fought in the Abyssinia campaigns, and led the force that captured the Afghan capital of Kabul during the Second Afghan war, before accepting command of British forces in South Africa in late 1899. Accompanying Roberts as chief of staff was the latest Imperial victor who had led the re-conquest of the Sudan, Kitchener of Khartoum. Buller suffered another defeat in January at Spion Kop in a fresh attempt to reach Ladysmith; the British marched to a Boer outpost on a hill and then were fired on for four days by the entrenched Boers, before Roberts arrived in early February.

448,895 reinforcements were arriving from across the Empire; many of them mounted infantry or volunteers from Britain. British forces led by Field Marshal Roberts reached the Modder River in February, the Boer besiegers were rapidly out-manoeuvred and Kimberly was relieved on 15th February. Twelve days later Cronje and 4,000 Boers were surrounded and forced to surrender at Baardeberg. On 28th February Buller relieved Ladysmith after a well planned and methodical attack. Buller’s reputation never recovered from his initial defeats but over the next six months he showed real competence in out-manoeuvring the Boers. The advance resumed two months later on 11th May and Johannesburg was captured at the end of the month. A week later Pretoria fell and the war was seemingly over. Roberts and Buller left in the autumn of 1900 and Kitchener took over as Commander-in-Chief in November. At times there were serious shortages of provisions and equipment due to dependence on the railway. Robert’s army had been hit by a devastating outbreak of typhoid which killed more troops than were killed by the Boers.

The loss of their major cities did not induce the Boer Commandos to surrender. They now resorted to guerrilla warfare, attacking small British detachments and in particular the railways and supply lines. Kitchener responded with the ruthless logic, the land was to be swept clear of food and subdivided by barbed wire and blockhouses. Farms were burnt and the Boer women and children lodged in concentration camps. Gradually the Boer Commandos were worn down and negotiations began in the spring of 1902 and peace was finally agreed at Vereeniging on the last day of May 1902. By the terms of the Treaty of Vereeniging the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State became part of the Empire. There was to be an amnesty for the Boers who had fought in the war and a grant of £3,000,000 from the British government to help repair damage. The prospect of self-government for the Transvaal Republic and Orange Free State was held out but without a firm dated being given. The war had cost the British government £210,000,000, the deaths of 5,774 British troops due to enemy action and 16,168 dying of disease and their wounds.


The role of the press

The mid-nineteenth century had seen the expansion of the press and the development of the penny daily symbolised by the Daily Telegraph launched in 1855. Others included the Morning Post (founded much earlier and supporting the Conservatives), the Daily News, and the Daily Chronicle (supporting the Liberals. These tended to be serious political papers with a small middle-class readership. Outside London, there was still a strong regional press, such as the Manchester Guardian. The Times was also sold at the price of 3d. In 1896 Alfred Harmsworth launched the Daily Mail, selling at ½d, and aimed to maximised sales and boost advertising revenue. Stories were rewritten to provide interest and the layout was tailored to suit the working-classes. By 1899 the Daily Mail had achieved the daily circulation figure of 534,000 and used the Boer War to boost sales and the train that carried the Daily Mail from London circulation was known as ‘the South African train’. The papers were overwhelmingly in favour of the conflict and in this they reflected as much as created British public sentiment. Massingham, radical editor of the Daily Chronicle, was pro-Boer and this caused him trouble.

Winston Spencer Churchill was already known as an author and journalist and was hired by the Morning Post for £250 a month and the Daily Mail had also shown an interest (eventually hiring Lord Rossyln). Churchill was also a serving junior officer and when captured in December 1899 defending an armoured train claimed to be a correspondent. After escaping back to Natal, Buller appointed him a lieutenant in the South Africa Light Horse, but he continued to report. There was an official military censor but since correspondents were officers and gentlemen their judgement was mostly trusted. Through Churchill’s work the deficiencies of the British forces were revealed to the world.

The Liberal paper, the Daily News, supported the war under its editor E.T.Cook. But in 1901 Lloyd George helped to organise a coup by getting an anti-war syndicate, led by the Quaker George Cadbury, to buy controlling interest of the shares, forcing the paper to adopt a pro-Boer approach. By this point there was growing sentiment against the war and although the majority of the press supported the war throughout 1899, 1900, and after reporting was still truthful. The disasters of Black Week were reported in mournful detail and the Boers were respected as soldiers.


Support and opposition

Many Liberals to the Left of the party shared the concerns of John Morely that the war was morally wrong. The leader of the recently founded Independent Labour Party, Keir Hardy, saw it as a capitalist war for the profits of mine owners. The Irish nationalists sympathised with the Boers, feeling that they were both victims of British oppression. Quakers like George Cadbury backed the opposition with money and an amalgam of different groups formed into an anti war movement. It was David Lloyd George whose high profile speeches brought him notoriety as the leading opponent of the war.

Patriotic excess showed itself in mass hostility to pro-Boer meetings. In 1901 David Lloyd George provocatively addressed an anti-war rally in Birmingham town hall that resulted in the platform party being attacked by the crowd and speakers being in risk of their lives, Birmingham was the base of Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain. Lloyd George went on to hold a successful anti-war meeting in Bristol in January 1902. Support was at its greatest between 1899 and 1900 and faded somewhat after that, enthusiasm was also far greater among the middle-classes.

Opponents of the war claimed that it was fought on behalf of the rich mine owners such as Alfred Beit and Cecil Rhodes and that the British were fighting a simple, but decent, people, not barbarians. As Kitchener began to adopt new tactics to deal with guerrilla warfare criticism moved to the methods by which the war was conducted, in particular the way that civilians were herded into concentration camps. The camps were intended as shelters for the families of those Boers who preferred surrender to guerrilla warfare, they were then used to home those aiding the guerrillas and families of prisoners-of-war. The suffering in the civilian camps was the result of overcrowding, supply problems, and general military incompetence. By September there were 110,000 detained in 34 camps. Typhoid and various other diseases broke out, resulting in the deaths of 27,927 Boers, particularly children.

Emily Hobhouse was secretary of the women’s branch of the South African Conciliation Committee and had close family relations with various leading anti-war politicians. In January of 1901 she visited one of the camps in Bloemfontein and, while the military authorities were helpful, she was outraged by the conditions there. On her return to England in the spring of 1901 a report was circulated among MPs and then made public, it produced an outrage. In response the government dispatched an all female committee of enquiry under Mrs Millicent Fawcett, a Liberal Unionist and campaigner for votes for women, and they spent August to December in South Africa. Her report supported that of Hobhouse. During negotiations the camps were handed over to civilian administration and the death rate fell dramatically.


Politics

The war had a devastating effect on the Liberal Party, splitting it into three warring factions. A group of senior figures, around the former leader Lord Rosebery, were dubbed Liberal Imperialists (LIMPs) and supported the war. They included Herbert Asquith, Sir Edward Grey, and Lord Haldane, some of the most talented politicians on the Liberal front bench. A group of radicals like Lloyd George noisily opposed the war and were known as pro-Boers. In the middle, and desperately trying to keep the party together, was the rather uncharismatic Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman.

In the autumn of 1900 Chamberlain urged Lord Salisbury, and his Conservative and Unionist government, to take advantage of the patriotic fervour in what was known as the ‘Khaki election’. The Liberals hated Chamberlain since he had abandoned the party in 1886 and Lloyd George accused him of being a war profiteer. The results justified the decision to go for an election with the Conservatives winning 51% of the vote, being particularly popular in urban areas.
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SBradford
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(Original post by Henry VIII 109)
Could you just clear up what you mean by "situation with France" and "6 articles too reformist"? having a bit of a panic here haha :P thanks
I meant the 10 articles being too reformist, sorry about that.
And the situation with France is that they have always been on and off with a war against the Holy Roman Emperor, and after the time Henry was excommunicated from the church, France and the HRE were in an alliance and so Henry and Cromwell felt that England needed an alliance. Cromwell put forward a alliance with the Cleves, Henry knew that the Cleves were very influence by Lutherianism but what other choice did he have? Eventually the peace between France and HRE had broken and therefore England was not at as much of a risk at being attacked.
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daizeee
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(Original post by Rascacielos)
It could be any of the wars, really. But if I remember correctly, it's most likely to be the two wars that didn't come up in part A. Don't quote me on that though because it was a year ago since I took this exam.

That said, you should revise all 3 wars IMO. Although you could, in theory, get away with 2 (because you don't actually need own knowledge for part a, although I found it helped to set the context of the sources which => better evaluation of its provenance), you do risk encountering a very difficult question in part b and having to answer it because you didn't bother to revise for the other war.
Ok thanx a lot i'll get on with revising them all then, gonna be up all night lol
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daizeee
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Does anyone have notes for WW1 pls?
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Smuke
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Anyone have any idea on what's going to come up tomorrow?
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lagoom
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I'm going to drop history next year, I find it too hard! I've got the knowledge but I don't know how to put it on paper, I don't know how to analyse sources properly, I'd prefer it if there were no sources :/ I hope foreign policy doesn't come up tommorrow, hopefully questions on the great matter or wolsey come up, does anyone know what's likely to come up?
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Henry VIII 109
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(Original post by SBradford)
I meant the 10 articles being too reformist, sorry about that.
And the situation with France is that they have always been on and off with a war against the Holy Roman Emperor, and after the time Henry was excommunicated from the church, France and the HRE were in an alliance and so Henry and Cromwell felt that England needed an alliance. Cromwell put forward a alliance with the Cleves, Henry knew that the Cleves were very influence by Lutherianism but what other choice did he have? Eventually the peace between France and HRE had broken and therefore England was not at as much of a risk at being attacked.
aha ah dont worry okay - so the fact that Cromwell initiated the alliance with Cleves, which turned out to be unnecessary, is a key factor towards his fall? think I understand it now, unless what i just said was completely wrong - cheers!

what do you think about the possibility of a question on either of the dissolution of the monasteries or the pilgrimage of grace popping up?
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tillytots
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I dunno, I'm guessing contienscious objectors, light brigade and boer affecting imperialism won't come up as it did in January :/

I've only revised WW1 and boer war, so really hope both b questions aren't crimea!
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lagoom
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Does anyone know what the structure is? You don't need an introduction for part a but do you need one for part b?
And can you include points from your own knowledge in part b that are not in the sources?
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SBradford
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I wouldn't mind one on the dissolution of the monasteries, but I dunno what'd I'd write about a question on the pilgrimage of grace. :/ If I remember rightly though a 20 marker on the pilgrimage come up a recently. I may be wrong though.
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