Aspects of narrative in Gatsby, AQA English Literature B

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donzy
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So guys exam on Monday, I made this thread so people can contribute notes, significant quotes and ideas and it would be a huge help if chapter references were made when explaining ideas. Feel free to contribute and expand

  • Voice
  • Setting
  • Characterisation
  • Destination
  • Time
  • Viewpoint
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Groat
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I'm writing up a list of great quotes tomorrow so I'll try and copy it up here tomorrow evening!
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donzy
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(Original post by Groat)
I'm writing up a list of great quotes tomorrow so I'll try and copy it up here tomorrow evening!
Im sure everyone will appreciate that thanks!
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donzy
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Gatsby chapter 9 ideas

• narrative perspective/voices: first person narrator, self-conscious story teller and author, use
of choric voices, use of Mr Gatzís voice, stray voice of ****le, use of the telephone, etc
• setting: New York, Nickís house, Gatsbyís mansion, the cemetery, Fifth Avenue, early 20
th
century, etc
• 20
th
century tragedy, a novel about writing a novel, a love story, etc
• time leap ñ 2 years have passed, flashback through Nickís memory, non-chronological/
begins with the remembered scene outside Gatsbyís house, leads to Nickís attempt to call
Daisy, the arrival of Gatsbyís father ñ his story of Gatsbyís youth, Gatsbyís funeral,
reflections of Nickís thoughts about the Mid West, Nickís final meeting with Tom and Daisy,
Nickís leaving New York, etc
• poetic prose, descriptive detail, sensual description, funereal language, use of French,
dialogue, variations of pace, use of Wolfshiemís letter, use of Gatsbyís schedule, imagery of
utopia, valedictory quality, natural imagery, important use of final word which is ëpastí, etc.
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donzy
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Gatsby chapter 4 ideas

Form: 20
th
century tragedy, a novel about writing a novel, a love story, etc
? Structure: begins with a general focus on some party goers and their assessment of Gatsby,
leads to a series of mysterious meetings between Gatsby and Nick, Nick and Wolfshiem and
Nick and Jordan, central revelation is the past relationship between Gatsby and Daisy, ends
with Gatsby’s intention to meet Daisy again and how Nick is to assist/disjointed chronology
here, use of story of 5 years previously told through Jordan/story framed by the reflections of
the retrospective narrator, etc
? Language: poetic prose, descriptive detail, use of French ‘amour’, use of children’s song,
use of contrast, symbolism of the timetable to write names of Gatsby’s guests, use of irony,
image of the dead man, use of dialogue, etc.
? Narrative perspective/voices: first person narrator, self conscious story teller and author, use
of choric voices and rumour, use of Jordan to tell the story, use of voices of Gatsby and
Wolfshiem, slow pace to unravel the mystery, etc.
? Setting: New York, Gatsby’s mansion, Nick’s house, Gatsby’s car, specific date 5
th
July (day
after Independence Day), Forty-second Street cellar, tea-garden at the Plaza, flashback
October 1917, etc
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donzy
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Gatsby chapter 3 ideas

Narrative perspective/ voices: first person narrator, self conscious story teller and
author, narratorial distancing of last two pages, etc. use of choric voices and rumour, etc.
• Setting: New York, Gatsby’s mansion, etc.
• 20
th
century tragedy, a novel about writing a novel, etc.
• begins with a generalised reflection of the summer parties, moves to Nick’s first party,
dramatic explosion of Gatsby’s entrance, ends with focus on Nick and Jordan’s
relationship, story at this point is chronological but framed by the reflections of the
retrospective narrator, etc.
• poetic prose, descriptive detail, sensual description of Jordan, topical references, time
references, car symbolism, etc.
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donzy
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Gatsby chapter 5 ideas


• narrative perspective/voices: first person narrator, self-conscious story teller and author, voices of
Gatsby and Daisy, etc
• setting: Nickís house, Gatsbyís mansion ñ importance of the stage management by Gatsby, the
mansion not a home but an elaborate prop, etc
• 20
th
century tragedy, a novel about writing a novel, a love story, etc
• centrepiece of the whole novel ñ the meeting between Gatsby and Daisy; begins with a description of
Nickís arrival home at night and his telling Gatsby that Daisy is to come to tea the following day, leads
to Gatsbyís meticulous preparations, Daisyís arrival and the romantic encounter; finally Nick leaves
the lovers alone, and reflects on whether or not Daisy tumbled short of Gatsbyís dreams,
chronological story but told retrospectively, use of page breaks, etc
• poetic prose, descriptive detail, sensual description, use of Klipspringerís songs, use of colour
(especially green) and musical imagery, time references, dialogue, repetition, references to the past,
reference to Adam, etc
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Karsect
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Form: Unreliable Narrator. In first person narrative you need to understand that the character will put their own views and prejudices in to the events, as does Nick. He has a vivid imagination that he uses to interpret peoples feelings and thoughts, however this makes him gullible. Nick also has a limited experience of life which may lead him to misinterpret events, his puritanical (very strict in moral/ social beliefs) upbringing that has shaped his opinions and beliefs.

Structure:

Modifying the narrative
Fitzgerald uses Nick as a framing devise to help hold the novel together. The first few pages introduce him and the last tell us what he did after Gatsby's death, he supposedly selects what to include in the novel and tells us what he rememebers others have told him.

Arousing the interest in gatsby
When Nick meets him, he is unaware of Gatsby's identity so we are given an unbiased description of him. Nick takes little note of gatsby's appearance until he learns his identity.


Non linear narrative structure
This clearly shows how Fizgerald planned his novel. Most of the time we are given information in the order Nick gets it. Our interest is aroused in gatsby by rumours of gatsby and we learn nothing of the man's history till we actually meet him. We actually learn about Nicks feeling about gatsby rather than his true backgound as he neve tells his own story, nick interprets it.

Nick does not tell us much about what happens between scenes.

He creates intricate patterns of imagery and symbolism and some of the scenes parallel or contrast with others.

Symbolism-
The green light
DR T J Eckleburg
Owl eyes
Cars
Weather


Any chance of someone posting a response or a plan to a response to a "how does Fitzgerald tell the story on chapter x?" question ? Thank's in advance :P Sorry about typo's: I'm stressing over this exam too much to spell check or do a proper layout of this post.
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donzy
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(Original post by Karsect)
Form: Unreliable Narrator. In first person narrative you need to understand that the character will put their own views and prejudices in to the events, as does Nick. He has a vivid imagination that he uses to interpret peoples feelings and thoughts, however this makes him gullible. Nick also has a limited experience of life which may lead him to misinterpret events, his puritanical (very strict in moral/ social beliefs) upbringing that has shaped his opinions and beliefs.

Structure:

Modifying the narrative
Fitzgerald uses Nick as a framing devise to help hold the novel together. The first few pages introduce him and the last tell us what he did after Gatsby's death, he supposedly selects what to include in the novel and tells us what he rememebers others have told him.

Arousing the interest in gatsby
When Nick meets him, he is unaware of Gatsby's identity so we are given an unbiased description of him. Nick takes little note of gatsby's appearance until he learns his identity.


Non linear narrative structure
This clearly shows how Fizgerald planned his novel. Most of the time we are given information in the order Nick gets it. Our interest is aroused in gatsby by rumours of gatsby and we learn nothing of the man's history till we actually meet him. We actually learn about Nicks feeling about gatsby rather than his true backgound as he neve tells his own story, nick interprets it.

Nick does not tell us much about what happens between scenes.

He creates intricate patterns of imagery and symbolism and some of the scenes parallel or contrast with others.

Symbolism-
The green light
DR T J Eckleburg
Owl eyes
Cars
Weather


Any chance of someone posting a response or a plan to a response to a "how does Fitzgerald tell the story on chapter x?" question ? Thank's in advance :P Sorry about typo's: I'm stressing over this exam too much to spell check or do a proper layout of this post.
How does Fitzgerald tell the story in Chapter 7?

The setting plays a key part in chapter seven, from the beginning of the chapter Nick describes that it is a hot day, this is significant as the heat as connotations of tension and creates a sweltering atmosphere for the events to take place. The conductor exclaims that they are having ‘some weather!’ and shouts ‘Hot! ... Hot! ... Hot! ...’. Fitzgerald is especially highlighting it to the audience by repeating and reiterates to the reader what the weather is like. The weather shows the tension and Fitzgerald employs pathetic fallacy as the weather reflects the mood. It’s significant that it is ‘certainly the warmest, of the summer’ which represents a climax of the book as well as the tension. Language used by Fitzgerald such as ‘hot whistle’ and ‘simmer’ present the image of a kettle reaching a boiling point symbolising the situation at hand and a premonition of Tom confronting Gatsby about Daisy as everything erupts. Daisy herself comments on the heat and says that ‘everything’s so confused’. This embodies her confusion of the past and present and who she truly loves between Gatsby and Tom.

Also we learn more about Gatsby’s love for Daisy in chapter seven as he undergoes a change in his lifestyle. Peculiarly to Nick, Gatsby dismisses all of his servants as he wanted to employ staff that ‘wouldn’t gossip’. He has adopted a discrete manner to keep his relationship with Daisy concealed from the outside world. In the previous chapter Gatsby had no concern about the speculations and rumours about him; Gatsby shows awareness of the society’s perception of him as his relationship with Daisy has caused him to retract from the outside world. Nick describes that 'the whole caravansary had fallen in like a card house at the disapproval in her eyes’ showing how easily Gatsby’s image can be taken down as Tom blows reveals Gatsby isn’t really an ‘oxford man’. Gatsby is portrayed as to lack real substance and security hence why Daisy chooses Tom in the end. Another meaning for a card house is an eastern inn where merchants visited; the merchants are similar to the people that visited Gatsby’s house for the lavish parties but are now turned away and ‘drove sulkily’ on their way. We also learn Gatsby views Daisy’s voice as being ‘full of money’, Gatsby has always had an aspiration for wealth and this link presents to the author why he is so in love with Daisy and he sees her as a way of completing his dream.

In addition it becomes noticeable how attached Gatsby is to the past. He has difficulty accepting the present circumstances. For instance he can not accept that Daisy has loved Tom. When Tom tells Gatsby that Daisy loved me when she married him and that she loves him now Gastby responds by ‘shaking his head’. He is unable to accept it and shakes his head as if Tom is telling a lie. Yet Daisy confirms it and even when she says it Gatsby asks to speak to her alone desperate to clutch on to the lost relationship. He even says you ‘loved me too?’ it shows his inability to accept she loved anyone else but him in the past.

It is significant that Fitzgerald decides to introduce Daisy’s daughter so late in the novel as it reaches its climax. The daughter comes as a hindrance to the development of Gatsby and Daisy’s relationship. It shows how Gatsby can’t change the past and this has constantly frustrated him as he knows he can’t ‘help what’s past’. When Gatsby looks at the child Nick describes his reaction as one that never ‘believed in its existence’. He doesn’t want to acknowledge the child exists and has blocked it out of his mind until now. Also the introduction of the daughter exposes Daisy’s flaws as a mother. She refers to her daughter as an ‘absolute little dream’ showing how she perceives her daughter as an image in the American dream her and Tom create. Daisy and Jordan are described as ‘silver idols’ as they indulge in the ‘breeze of fans’. This shows that Nick is beginning to realise everything is artificial and materialistic and daisy daughter appears as another possession.

Another important depiction of a character is Tom; he asserts his superiority by looking down on Gatsby and arguing over Daisy as if she is a possession and has no say. This shows the contemporary views of women not being as superior as men. Tom is angry that his wife is having an affair but the fact that irritates him the most is that his wife is having an affair with someone he views as lower class. Tom expresses this when he states ‘I’ll be damned if I see how you got within a mile of her unless you brought groceries to the back door’ implying Gatsby should be a servant, shows how Tom looks down on people and see their relevance in life as little. He views Gatsby as the ‘Mr. Nobody from Nowhere’. Tom is establishing the difference of old money and new money and how the American Dream isn’t for him and his type of people. When speaking to Gatsby Nick notes that his voice ‘leaned over him’ demonstrating the point made of Tom being a class higher than him.

Furthermore Tom’s realisation of the affair between Daisy and Gatsby is emulated through George Wilson’s realisation of Myrtle having an affair. Tom has a ‘parallel discovery’ about his wife being in affair; Fitzgerald reveals how the characters lack moral codes and the openness of infidelity. As Tom leaves the room to get a drink for his guests she kisses Gatsby whilst Tom is relatively close and does it in front of Nick and Jordan. Daisy also shows affection to Gatsby in front of Tom by ‘touching his coat with his hand’. This affirms Tom’s suspicions yet doesn’t say anything abrupt or voice his opinion to Daisy straight away. There is an apparent lack of morals in society and Fitzgerald is highlighting the corruptness of the American dream and how it doesn’t truly lead to happiness. Wilson looks remarkably ‘sick’ giving the connotations of the colour green. This is important as the colour green links with illness yet represents envy and jealously which is apparent in both Tom and Wilson where there is ‘no difference between the men’. Although of different class levels the same thing has happened to them and Fitzgerald breaks down the barrier between upper and lower class by showing the similarities between the two.

The structure and sequence also add to the way the story is told. There is also a parallel similarity created at the Plaza suite which is structurally identical with Myrtle’s party in her apartment. ‘The prolonged and tumultuous argument that ended by herding us into that room eluded’ Nick but it adds to the intimacy. The image creates a claustrophobic effect which forces closeness between the characters as they are crammed together. Fitzgerald uses a confined space so there are no distractions from the dramatic dialogue and the reader is close up to the audience. By Nick recreating the speech as a narrator it gives variety in the way the story is told keeping it engaging but also puts the reader in the midst of the action. Also the setting also changes frequently between West Egg, New York and the Valley of Ashes keeping a high-paced chapter.

Myrtle’s death denote’s her being punished by God for her infidelity and unfaithfulness. Myrtle was a character driven by wealth similar to Gatsby. There is a grotesque image of her death ‘her left breast was swinging loose like a flap’. The breast is a sexual part of the body yet is being used to describe how badly she has been injured by the accident. Her distorted surface represents her core value and lack of morality and godly presence in her life. She lives right under the eyes of Dr. Eckleberg which show the all seeing eyes of and her fate has been prejudged.

Finally as a narrator Nick connects a lot with the audience as he observes all that goes on. The reader connects with him as the story is told through his point of view. The fact that he ‘just’ remembers it’s his birthday near the end of the chapter presents a melancholy side to him. It shows his loneliness as he forgets an important day in his own life. Also Nick doesn’t have high hopes for his prospects in life as he feels ‘thirty – the decade of loneliness, a thinning list of single men to know’. He feels like up to this point he hasn’t achieved what he wants and life can only go down hill. This contradicts to his feelings of Gatsby’s ‘heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, showing his admiration for Gatsby.

lol erm this is a response i had to do for hwk, teacher gave it 16/21
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Karsect
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(Original post by donzy)
How does Fitzgerald tell the story in Chapter 7?

The setting plays a key part in chapter seven, from the beginning of the chapter Nick describes that it is a hot day, this is significant as the heat as connotations of tension and creates a sweltering atmosphere for the events to take place. The conductor exclaims that they are having ‘some weather!’ and shouts ‘Hot! ... Hot! ... Hot! ...’. Fitzgerald is especially highlighting it to the audience by repeating and reiterates to the reader what the weather is like. The weather shows the tension and Fitzgerald employs pathetic fallacy as the weather reflects the mood. It’s significant that it is ‘certainly the warmest, of the summer’ which represents a climax of the book as well as the tension. Language used by Fitzgerald such as ‘hot whistle’ and ‘simmer’ present the image of a kettle reaching a boiling point symbolising the situation at hand and a premonition of Tom confronting Gatsby about Daisy as everything erupts. Daisy herself comments on the heat and says that ‘everything’s so confused’. This embodies her confusion of the past and present and who she truly loves between Gatsby and Tom.

Also we learn more about Gatsby’s love for Daisy in chapter seven as he undergoes a change in his lifestyle. Peculiarly to Nick, Gatsby dismisses all of his servants as he wanted to employ staff that ‘wouldn’t gossip’. He has adopted a discrete manner to keep his relationship with Daisy concealed from the outside world. In the previous chapter Gatsby had no concern about the speculations and rumours about him; Gatsby shows awareness of the society’s perception of him as his relationship with Daisy has caused him to retract from the outside world. Nick describes that 'the whole caravansary had fallen in like a card house at the disapproval in her eyes’ showing how easily Gatsby’s image can be taken down as Tom blows reveals Gatsby isn’t really an ‘oxford man’. Gatsby is portrayed as to lack real substance and security hence why Daisy chooses Tom in the end. Another meaning for a card house is an eastern inn where merchants visited; the merchants are similar to the people that visited Gatsby’s house for the lavish parties but are now turned away and ‘drove sulkily’ on their way. We also learn Gatsby views Daisy’s voice as being ‘full of money’, Gatsby has always had an aspiration for wealth and this link presents to the author why he is so in love with Daisy and he sees her as a way of completing his dream.

In addition it becomes noticeable how attached Gatsby is to the past. He has difficulty accepting the present circumstances. For instance he can not accept that Daisy has loved Tom. When Tom tells Gatsby that Daisy loved me when she married him and that she loves him now Gastby responds by ‘shaking his head’. He is unable to accept it and shakes his head as if Tom is telling a lie. Yet Daisy confirms it and even when she says it Gatsby asks to speak to her alone desperate to clutch on to the lost relationship. He even says you ‘loved me too?’ it shows his inability to accept she loved anyone else but him in the past.

It is significant that Fitzgerald decides to introduce Daisy’s daughter so late in the novel as it reaches its climax. The daughter comes as a hindrance to the development of Gatsby and Daisy’s relationship. It shows how Gatsby can’t change the past and this has constantly frustrated him as he knows he can’t ‘help what’s past’. When Gatsby looks at the child Nick describes his reaction as one that never ‘believed in its existence’. He doesn’t want to acknowledge the child exists and has blocked it out of his mind until now. Also the introduction of the daughter exposes Daisy’s flaws as a mother. She refers to her daughter as an ‘absolute little dream’ showing how she perceives her daughter as an image in the American dream her and Tom create. Daisy and Jordan are described as ‘silver idols’ as they indulge in the ‘breeze of fans’. This shows that Nick is beginning to realise everything is artificial and materialistic and daisy daughter appears as another possession.

Another important depiction of a character is Tom; he asserts his superiority by looking down on Gatsby and arguing over Daisy as if she is a possession and has no say. This shows the contemporary views of women not being as superior as men. Tom is angry that his wife is having an affair but the fact that irritates him the most is that his wife is having an affair with someone he views as lower class. Tom expresses this when he states ‘I’ll be damned if I see how you got within a mile of her unless you brought groceries to the back door’ implying Gatsby should be a servant, shows how Tom looks down on people and see their relevance in life as little. He views Gatsby as the ‘Mr. Nobody from Nowhere’. Tom is establishing the difference of old money and new money and how the American Dream isn’t for him and his type of people. When speaking to Gatsby Nick notes that his voice ‘leaned over him’ demonstrating the point made of Tom being a class higher than him.

Furthermore Tom’s realisation of the affair between Daisy and Gatsby is emulated through George Wilson’s realisation of Myrtle having an affair. Tom has a ‘parallel discovery’ about his wife being in affair; Fitzgerald reveals how the characters lack moral codes and the openness of infidelity. As Tom leaves the room to get a drink for his guests she kisses Gatsby whilst Tom is relatively close and does it in front of Nick and Jordan. Daisy also shows affection to Gatsby in front of Tom by ‘touching his coat with his hand’. This affirms Tom’s suspicions yet doesn’t say anything abrupt or voice his opinion to Daisy straight away. There is an apparent lack of morals in society and Fitzgerald is highlighting the corruptness of the American dream and how it doesn’t truly lead to happiness. Wilson looks remarkably ‘sick’ giving the connotations of the colour green. This is important as the colour green links with illness yet represents envy and jealously which is apparent in both Tom and Wilson where there is ‘no difference between the men’. Although of different class levels the same thing has happened to them and Fitzgerald breaks down the barrier between upper and lower class by showing the similarities between the two.

The structure and sequence also add to the way the story is told. There is also a parallel similarity created at the Plaza suite which is structurally identical with Myrtle’s party in her apartment. ‘The prolonged and tumultuous argument that ended by herding us into that room eluded’ Nick but it adds to the intimacy. The image creates a claustrophobic effect which forces closeness between the characters as they are crammed together. Fitzgerald uses a confined space so there are no distractions from the dramatic dialogue and the reader is close up to the audience. By Nick recreating the speech as a narrator it gives variety in the way the story is told keeping it engaging but also puts the reader in the midst of the action. Also the setting also changes frequently between West Egg, New York and the Valley of Ashes keeping a high-paced chapter.

Myrtle’s death denote’s her being punished by God for her infidelity and unfaithfulness. Myrtle was a character driven by wealth similar to Gatsby. There is a grotesque image of her death ‘her left breast was swinging loose like a flap’. The breast is a sexual part of the body yet is being used to describe how badly she has been injured by the accident. Her distorted surface represents her core value and lack of morality and godly presence in her life. She lives right under the eyes of Dr. Eckleberg which show the all seeing eyes of and her fate has been prejudged.

Finally as a narrator Nick connects a lot with the audience as he observes all that goes on. The reader connects with him as the story is told through his point of view. The fact that he ‘just’ remembers it’s his birthday near the end of the chapter presents a melancholy side to him. It shows his loneliness as he forgets an important day in his own life. Also Nick doesn’t have high hopes for his prospects in life as he feels ‘thirty – the decade of loneliness, a thinning list of single men to know’. He feels like up to this point he hasn’t achieved what he wants and life can only go down hill. This contradicts to his feelings of Gatsby’s ‘heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, showing his admiration for Gatsby.

lol erm this is a response i had to do for hwk, teacher gave it 16/21
haha cheers man :P I was told by my teacher that chapter 7 is likely to come up (however it is just guess work) so if I was you I would revise that post. Thanks again, I'll think of you if chapter 7 comes up :P.
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cheer_toni
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for section a dont think chapters 8 or 9 will come up they were last june and january's one
was told 1,2,6 or 7 are most likey x
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amyblack545
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CHAPTER 2 RESPONSE (20/21)
Fitzgerald tells the story in chapter two through Nick Carraway; a first person retrospective narrator. Fitzgerald has him as both as the participant and observing narrator; these changes are portrayed through Fitzgerald's use of tense shift. Nick observes the valley of ashes and states that is it "unprosperous and bare", however, he becomes a participant in the narrative and travels through the setting. Fitzgerald uses Nick's narrative as lyrical and also self-conscious as he is a literary writer: "a ford which crouched in a dim corner". Fitzgerald personifies the car here in a lyrical description immersing the reader into the story and setting.
Fitzgerald's strong emphases of setting is used to tell the story of chapter 2. The setting is highlighted as the chapter starts with the description of the Valley of Ashes, "a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat ridges".
Fitzgerald's repetitive use of the colour "grey" suggests sterility, bleakness and a "solemn dumping ground". Fitzgerald uses setting to create contrasts. The Valley of Ashes juxtaposes the setting in chapter 1. The opulent setting of the Buchanans home juxtaposes the "dismal scene" of George Wilson's garage. Fitzgerald uses this contrast to highlight the gap between the rich and poor of post-war America.
Fitzgerald's use of setting also aids his characterisation of the residents of the Valley of Ashes. Just as the setting implies a hopelessness that is the antithesis of the American Dream, Fitzgerald introduces George Wilson in chapter 2, a man who cannot break free of this social class and low position in society. Fitzgerald uses descriptive imagery to introduce this "blond, spiritless man, anaemic". The effect of this is the reader pitying the character which is crucial later in the novel as we do not resent him for killing Gatsby. Fitzgerald presents him as a naive, hopeless man by his use of colour imagery and the "gleam of hope that sprang into his light blue eyes".
Fitzgerald uses the apartment setting being "on the top floor" as a literal metaphor for Myrtle ascending in society. The apartment is too small for the "over-enlarged" furniture within. Fitzgerald creates this setting to symbolise the unfulfilling nature of wealth and to characterise Myrtle unsatisfied with her place in society.
Fitzgerald uses direct speech and dialogue to make events of the chapter appear as they were happening in real time despite them being written in retrospect. "That dog will cost you ten dollars", Fitzgerald uses direct speech to introduce the .... nature of New York as a setting as Tom then replies "Here's your money. Go and buy ten more dogs with it".
Fitzgerald uses voice in this chapter to further highlight the corruption; in reference to rumour and gossip Fitzgerald uses voices to suggest the intensity and sheer volume of rumour and speculation. Catherine reinforces this when she states, "[Daisy], a catholic, and they don't believe in divorce" as the reason for Tom not leaving her.
Fitzgerald uses time shifts to move the events of the chapter on, "it was nine o clock". These narrative gaps suggest the effects of alcohol on Nick and further imply he'll susceptible to corruption (alcohol being illegal due to prohibition laws). Nicks drunken state, allows Fitzgerald to cut of unnecessary events, as if they were forgotten, and only focus on the important plot points.
Fitzgerald uses the party at the apartment to juxtapose Gatsby's party which follows in chapter 3. Fitzgerald uses action in this chapter when Tom "broke [Myrtles] nose". Characterising Tom as a brute and domineering character.
The chapter ends with the narrative gap which suggests Nick's reaction to the alcohol, "I was lying in Pennsylvania station". The chapter can be said to be cynical as it both starts and ends with train.
Fitzgerald uses symbolism e.g. the eyes of T.J Eckleburg which could represent the influence of capitalism. Another idea is that they represent the eyes of God looking down on the moral decay of America.
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can anyone help with chapter 4 or 5?
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