Firstly, note that there is no reason to know this until you are at the medical school. Just to satisfy your curiosity though:
Not sure you're technically allowed to post them, but i don't see what harm it can do... the part As are hard to get in a proper format but the part Bs are just essay questions, 3 essays in 2 hours for first year, 3 essays in 3 hours in second. Bear in mind that this represents only a fraction of what you are expected to know (and indeed a much wider knowledge base is tested in the part As).
First year just answering the question is enough to pass, but second year and beyond you are expected to be able to cite primary experimental evidence and better students are expected to criticize papers and explore alternative views.
First year 2011 papers:
Biochemistry and genetics
1. Outline the pathways for the storage of glucose as glycogen and its
subsequent mobilisation. Compare the control of these pathways in liver and
fast twitch, Type IIb skeletal muscle fibres.
2. What metabolic adaptations are needed to maintain normal biological function
during the course of a four day fast?
3. The impermeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane is a major factor in
energy metabolism. Using specific examples, show how this barrier can be
overcome and how this contributes to overall metabolic control.
4. How is the energy released from substrate oxidation in the mitochondrial
matrix coupled to ATP production? What other energy-requiring processes
can be driven by this mechanism?
5. What is the medical relevance of an understanding of basic enzyme kinetics?
Illustrate your answer with specific examples of how kinetic properties provide
insight into physiological and pathological processes.
6. Biological diversity is generated by a vast number of different combinations of
a relatively small number of structural and functional elements. Discuss this
in relation to proteins.
7. What processing steps are usually required to convert a primary gene
transcript into a mature messenger RNA? Which of these steps would you
expect to be most susceptible to mutation? What could be the possible
consequences of such a mutation?
8. Discuss the roles of plasma proteins in health and disease.
9. What factors in a family history would lead you to suspect transmission of a
mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2? Discuss the implications and options
available to a 30 year old woman who is found to carry a BRCA2 mutation.
10. What is the nature of the genetic contribution to common diseases such as
hypertension and asthma? How is the significance of the genetic component
assessed? How can specific genetic variants associated with these
conditions be identified?
Organization of the body:
1. Discuss the development, structure and function of the vertebral column.
2. EITHER discuss the organisation and function of the peripheral nerve supply
to the upper limb OR describe the cellular organisation of peripheral nerves
explaining how the constituent cells are specialised to fulfil their various
functions. To what extent are such nerves capable of regeneration following
injury and how does this contrast with CNS?
3. What are stem cells? Describe their role in normal development and how they
might help to treat disease.
4. Discuss the anatomical, cellular and molecular mechanisms which enable
force generated by skeletal muscle contraction to be exerted on elements of
5. How are the cells of the epithelium lining the upper respiratory tract adapted
and specialised for their functions? Include in your discussion examples in
which cellular dysfunction might lead to disease.
6. How is the limb patterned during development? What experimental models
and methods have been valuable for gaining an understanding of the
molecular control of this process?
7. Describe how the four-chambered heart forms from the linear heart tube. In
what ways might errors in this process lead to abnormal heart development?
8. Compare and contrast the hormones adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
and cortisol. What are the consequences of dysregulation of these hormones?
9. Write an essay on infertility including reference to its causes and possible
10. How do the structures of different types of blood vessels reflect their function?
Physiology and Pharmacology
1. Compare and contrast electrical signalling in sinoatrial node cells and
ventricular myocytes of the heart. How may the electrocardiogram be used to
monitor and interpret electrical activity in the heart?
2. Describe the mechanism of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular
junction. How have drugs been used to elucidate various steps in this
3. Discuss, with examples, the different mechanisms for drug metabolism and
elimination from the body.
4. Discuss how alveolar ventilation is matched to vascular perfusion in the lungs.
What are the consequences of a mismatch and how may this be detected
5. Discuss the role of mechanical and chemical receptors in the control of
6. Describe the pathways for Na
reuptake by the nephron, how these may be
manipulated pharmacologically, and whether this might be useful clinically.
Indicate the physiological response to an unexpected rise of plasma NaCl
7. Discuss the role of the biliary system and the exocrine pancreas in digestion.
8. Discuss the control of motility in the gastrointestinal tract and how this may be
9. Discuss, with examples, the local control of flow in systemic blood vessels.
Describe how blood flow to one specified organ may be measured.
10. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of contraction and its activation in
skeletal and smooth muscle.