Psychology AQA B PSYB3 11th June 2012 Watch

lumayaa
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any revision sources/website/notes you guys want to share
any predictions/tips

and is anyone actually doing this lol?
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lumayaa
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any past papers on this unit apart form those provided by AQA site?
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Sadia.Z
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Heyy..

I'm sitting this exam too but I'm dreading it... It is tooo much to learn... Especially Cog Dev..

On the AQA website the past exam papers start from 2006 till June 11. I don't think they are going to be on other sites as AQA is the exam board..
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lumayaa
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how is a discuss 12 marker split ?
like "discuss the use of offender profiling. refer to evidence"
is it a 4 (AO1) 8 (AO2) split ?

also any example 12 markers on explanation of offending ?
can't find any online.

Thankkkkk you
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lumayaa
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(Original post by Sadia.Z)
Heyy..

I'm sitting this exam too but I'm dreading it... It is tooo much to learn... Especially Cog Dev..

On the AQA website the past exam papers start from 2006 till June 11. I don't think they are going to be on other sites as AQA is the exam board..


I am focusing on social development (attachment early&later) there's too much on cognitive. my only flaw is on the schizophrenia and mood disorders
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lumayaa
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can there be a 12 marker on theories of offending ?
example: discuss physiological explanation of offending to psychology. refer to evidence.
^ made that up lol, but I haven't seen one come up before ?
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Sadia.Z
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(Original post by lumayaa)
how is a discuss 12 marker split ?
like "discuss the use of offender profiling. refer to evidence"
is it a 4 (AO1) 8 (AO2) split ?

also any example 12 markers on explanation of offending ?
can't find any online.

Thankkkkk you
Well your AO1's are split by saying what is offender profiling, the things involved - typology + geographical profiling... You expand on these and try giving examples... The discussion is the AO2 whereby you evaluate typology, geographical profiling and offender profiling... You give evidence supporting or refuting them.. E.G. Canter...

Hope this helped..

Sadia
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Sadia.Z
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(Original post by lumayaa)
can there be a 12 marker on theories of offending ?
example: discuss physiological explanation of offending to psychology. refer to evidence.
^ made that up lol, but I haven't seen one come up before ?
Tbh you can't predict much questions for this booklet because the unexpected essay questions come up instead.. Lol..

The physiological explanations can be an essay question but I think it will be to easy... Lol.. Because you've the early and modern explanations... It'l be really good if it did...

My teacher has predicted the role/effectiveness of
custodial sentencing but you never know...
Has your teacher predicted anything??

Sadia
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lumayaa
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(Original post by Sadia.Z)
Tbh you can't predict much questions for this booklet because the unexpected essay questions come up instead.. Lol..

The physiological explanations can be an essay question but I think it will be to easy... Lol.. Because you've the early and modern explanations... It'l be really good if it did...

My teacher has predicted the role/effectiveness of
custodial sentencing but you never know...
Has your teacher predicted anything??

Sadia
I think forensic side is by far the easiest bit, as there is little biological side to it, just a few studies here and there so it's perfect haha

it's schizophrenia and mood disorders that are sooo long, and I enjoy attachment so that should be fine!

any other predictions from your teacher ? and mine doesn't have a clue >.<
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Rhibarb
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Hey!
So my teacher gave us a sheet of potential 12 markers that could come up, this is for the units: Social Development, Schizophrenia & Mood Disorders and Forensic Psychology.
So, I hope this helps

Social Development

Discuss psychological findings in relation to the function of attachment. Refer to evidence in your answer.
Discuss the role of caregiver-infant interactions in the development of attachment. Refer to evidence in your answer.
Discuss how psychologists have measured attachment.
Discuss Bowlby's/ Schaffer's/ Ainsworth's/ Van Ijzendoorn's work on attachment. Refer to the work of at least one other researcher in your answer.
Describe and evaluate Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation.
Discuss the possible consequences of privation. Refer to the Romanian orphan studies in your answer.
Discuss the consequences of privation and deprivation. Refer to evidence in your answer.
Discuss age related changes in friendship.
Discuss sex differences in friendship.
Discuss the causes/consequences of popularity and rejection.


Schizophrenia & Mood Disorders

Describe and evaluate at least one Biological/Sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia. Refer to empirical evidence in your answer.
Discuss the use of anti-psychotic drugs/psychotherapy to treat schizophrenia.
Describe and evaluate at least one biological/cognitive/psychodynamic explanation of mood disorders. Refer to empirical evidence in your answer.
Josie has a family history of depression and has experienced a number of significant events in her life, including the loss of her husband. Josie appreciates that Caroline is concerned about her, but she still thinks that everything is hopeless and that she has nothing to look forward to.
Describe and evaluate two explanations for depression. Refer to Josie in your answer.
Discuss at least one treatment for mood disorders. Refer to evidence in your answer.
Stephen has been diagnosed with unipolar depression and is discussing biological and cognitive treatment options with his doctor. Stephen asks the doctor about both types of treatment and about their strengths and limitations.
Describe both types of treatment and discuss the strengths and limitations of each.


Forensic Psychology

Discuss problems in defining and measuring crime.
Outline and evaluate two ways of measuring crime. Refer to evidence and/or published examples in your answer.
Discuss the use of typology/geographical offender profiling.
Harry is a reformed criminal who has written a best-selling book aout his life. In his book he describes his family history, including his difficult family background, his upbringing in a deprived area and how he was constantly in trouble at school. He also refers to friends who he believes had a strong influence in his life. Harry tries to explain to readers the reasons for his offending behaviour.
Using your knowledge of psychology, discuss two explanations for offending that could be applied in Harry's case. Refer to the description above in your answer.
Discuss the role of custodial sentencing.
Discuss the effectiveness of custodial sentencing.
Describe and evaluate two alternatives to custodial sentencing.
Mark has been in prison for five years. His criminal record shows several incidents of violent and agressive behaviour. The prison authorities would like to identify strategies that might reduce or eliminate his antisocial behaviour.
Describe and evaluate two ways of dealing with Mark, which might be used with violent offenders. Refer to evidence in your answer.


They may give you an option or theories/ways of dealing with offenders or they may give you a specific theory/treatment



Obviously a lot of these are questions that have actually come up previously, but it's nice to see what has come up before and the type of questions they ask.
Sorry this is such a long post, but it was very useful for me and I hope it is useful to you guys. It definitely helped me know how to revise and what to go into the most detail on.

Good luck everyone!
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Hauzer
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Kasmeh I'm scared now. I think I'm going to fail! ;(
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woofimaduck
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I've found the website getrevising.co.uk really helpful with all subjects you have to sign up but its great and you don't pay - and not sure whether your all studying this but there is a great PowerPoint on there about piaget and kohlberg - some good mini quizzes too!
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SugarLips.
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How's everyone feeling?
Anyone doing cog dev, i find that the most difficult :-(
also any tips for schizophrenia and forensics?
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lumayaa
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I got both English and psychology exam tomorrow.
gonna start psychology right now, hahah, chunking everything in my head.

anyone doing schizophrenia + mood disorders, forensic psychology and attachment,

any essay plans, prediction etc etc
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woofimaduck
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I'm doing cognitive development, schizophrenia and mood disorders, and cognition and law.

what i always try and put in schiz / mood essays are; taking an eclectic approach is better, people stop taking drugs because of the side effects, and putting a few FAT (family, adoption, twins) studies in.
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lumayaa
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looks like I'm not sleeping tonight LOL
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Placebo101
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I made my notes a couple of weeks ago, started concentrating on economics and history and now I've forgotten everything!
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Dr dolittlee
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Social development:
attachment:
- Frued suggested that feeding food forms attachment: HARLOW’s research disproves this as infant monkeys chose the cloth cylinder rather than the feeding cylinder.
- Bowlby suggests monotropism must exist (one attachment only with one person sually the mother) SCHAFFER’s research disproves this as the babies formed many attachments only 11% had attachment with one figure
- Bowlby’s maternal deprivation theory: if the mother is separated from the child during critical period the child will be grow up and become an intellectual retard, affectionless psychopath, delinquent and suffer from mental disorders etc..
AO2:
- Harlow’s research was unethical and animal research has problems with generalising.
- Schaffers’s study was longitudinal , may have followed the behaviour overtime.
- Bowlby’s condition of Affectionless psychopaths was made up . baised, used it to support his theory.

Measuring attachment:
-Ainsworth’s strange situation: 3 types of attachment.
Type A: avoidant attachment Type B: secure attachment Type C: ambivalentattachment
AO2:
- Cross culture variation- does not apply to non western cultures. i.e. Japanese children are ambivent.
- Mothers may feel bad when debriefed. hearing that there child is type C
- Type B is not always bad as it shows independence etc.
Functions of attachment:
- Motherese: talking to the baby in a gentle way, i.e. repeating words ‘gaga’, rhythm, rhyme (how you talk to a baby. )
- Turn taking interactional synchrony: talking to the baby.
- Immediate physical contact: mother cuddling the baby asap after birth.
- Imitation: the baby imitating facial expressions of the adult.

AO2:
- Motherese is not always nesseary for attachment although it can make turn taking effective.
- Immediate physical contact has short term benefits but long term benfits are unkown.
- In Kenya, they do not cuddle babies, but still have a good relationship and attachment.


Deprivation and Privation:
- Deprivation: had attachment before but lost the person (death divorce etc)
- Privation: no attachment at all.
- Short term deprivation: i.e. a few weeks the mother away in hospital. Does not affect much.
- Long term: during critical period will affect child will become a delinquent. Bowlbys maternal deprivation theory.

Privation:
- Genie: irreversible effect. Girl suffered from serous privation, was stuck to a potty chair, lived in the same room whole life, was given limited food. Could not walk or speak at the age of 13.
- Kolochova twins: reversible effect. Two twins suffered from privation when mother died and dad remarried. But many argue that this is deprivation as they had each other and had attachment with each other. Therefore was not as extreme as genie.

Ao2:
- case studies cant be generalised. Methodology.
- Genie may have learning difficulties and it may not be the affects of privation.

Affect of institutions.
Rutter: Romanian orphan : had low iq when came to uk, skinny no social skills etc. After four years had average iq and were alot healthier. No difference found between the uk control group. Therefore shows how privation can be reversed.
Roberston and Roberston: adopted children, maintained the same routine as they had in institution, found that they had good relationship with adoptive parents. The quality of care is important.
Friendship:
Friendship changes as you age.
Gender difference: younger children and girls choose to play with same sex friend.
Rose and rodudolph: found
- boys: large network of friends/ rough games/ and when older have interests in sports etc...
- girls: quite games/ pairs/ share stuff and things/help each other/ more intimate.


Rejection and popularity: 4 types: rejected, neglected, popular and disorganised.
Rejected 2 types: aggressive and lack social skills are builled
- Rejected children interrupt play.
- Popular child observes what group of friends are doing then makes positive comments etc..
- Found that rejected children’s later life is affected as they grow up adult life. Have to move school/work. form psychological disorders etc..
- Popluar children remain same, are confident and are still popular as an adult.



just wanted to type w.e I can remember without notes. clearly need to learn the studies ahhhhhhh
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Dr dolittlee
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Cognition and law:



Compostite systems: evofit / e fit / photofit


photofit- jigsaw like puzzle with features based on the feature analysis theory
lines interfered with recall and mac a mug programme used to deal with problems, has more feature's and no lines.
e fit- computerised version of photofit uses real images. based on the feature analysis theory -
davies: cant be generalised as work was not allowed to be generalised
evo fit - based on the holistic theory

frowd: compared all 5 systems.


Feature analysis theory and holistic theory:



Feature analysis theory:
- Eyebrows are important in face recognition. Sergant.
- Single features such as internal help recall a familiar face and external features help recall unfimlar face.
- Scarbaled faces: why is it difficult to recall faces when the eyebrows and features are present?
holistic theory:
- Whole face needs to be present.
- Encodes in a semantic way.
- Model. Features stored - >FRU- >Pin (information about the person is recalled before the name is. )

Lineups: sequential and simultaneous lineups.


Sequential: see the faces one at a time
- Encourages absolute judgment. – accurate.
- But can still compare the perious face with current with the next.
Simultaneous: see all lineups together.
- Encourages relative judgement.
- Witness might compare everyone in the group to find a person that meets characteristics off all the suspects, instead of finding the one they witnessed.
- Used in vipers. Used by police witness can watch videos in own time and feel comfortable
Improving: witness should be told they may not be present also it is important that the foils non suspects look like the suspect or the suspect will stand out.
Effects: weather condition, weapon focus. Lighting etc.

Recalling events:



- Emotions and stress: emotions and stress will affect recall./ weapon focus. (loftus and burns)
- Expectations: stereotypes and schemas affect reliability (howitt - )
- Context: cues and having same context as encoding and recall can improve relaiblity
- (malpass and devine)
-

Cognitive interview:

- reconstruction of the scene/ in everyone’s perspective/ every little detail/ asap after the event (witness may be shocked not mentally ready)
Children as eyewitness:

vulnerable to misleading questions/Complex lanagues/ tend to exaggerate/ like impressing others (demand characteristics) ( Lindsay and pool)
Flashbulb memory: memory stored of a personal experience - 9/11 -


Recovered memory and repression:


Repression: (Williams and clark and levinger )
- Blocks unpleasant events from the conscious. Motivated forgetting.
Recovered memory:
- Unreliable / case study of elieen franklin who accused her father of the murder of her best firend at the age of 8 and called the event 20 years later. Father was jailed for 6 years but was innocent as her recovered memory was unreliable.
- Breaks famile when discovered. Not all recovered memories are false but is very controversial if people are wrongly accused because you can’t measure the unconscious.
- Memory can be easily implanted if plausible event.
- Therapist use persuasive techniques to implant memory. Drug. Hypnosis etc used by psychiatrists.
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Dr dolittlee
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Forensic:



Measuring Crime:
Official stats – reported by police - not representative though. i.e. in some cities
Victim survey - survey for victims – questionnaire - dark figures
Self reports - interview people if they committed any crime.

- Official statistics not representative though. i.e. in some cities some crimes are not reported. Nottingham reports crimes such as stealing a £5 but not all cities herefore as high criminal rate.
- Victim survey- unreliable. May have fear of revenge etc. Not all crimes listed (serious)
- Self reports – unreliable relying on them to say the truth.

Offender profiling:
- Investigative approach:
David canter: John Duffy railway rapist found, the profile matched his real life.

- Geographical :
the location of the crime scene can give information about the criminal. CGT criminal geographic targeting system used to put spatial information in system, road mapping and distance way from crime analysed.

- FBI: typology
organised and disorganised crimes. 4 stages. Crime scene classification, crime assimilation, crime reconstruction, profile generation. Organised criminal is sexually and socially competent, high IQ , lives with partner and feels angry and depressed at the event . disorganised criminal: low iq, lives alone , likely to have psychological disorder, feels confused at the time of event, does no planning and the crime is brutal and quick.
Ao2:
- Geographical : scientific methods. Used in all crimes. CGT valuable tool in police work
- FBI: canter found no difference between disorganised and organised criminals. Not regarded as a science. Can only be used for violent crimes.
- Is profiling useful? Typology with geographical is found to be useful and effective. Police consider it as an invaluable tool.




Explanations of offending:

Physiological
- Lombroso: facial features
Criminals have high cheekbones, strong prominent jaw, big ears, extra toe finger and nipples.
Murderers have curly hair, blood shot eyes.
Also if they are uneducated born in deprieved area likely to be criminals

- Sheldon: body type
- endomorph (enterfat) – fat people (loving nature)
-ecotomorph – thin (self conscious)
- mesomorph – built mascular. – (criminals)

Biological:
- Twin studies:
If (mz) twins are both criminals its in their genes, if one twin is and the other is not then the environment influences crime.
Ao2: mz twins are treated alike. Same environment.
- Adoption studies
If biological parent is a criminal and the child, then genes are responsible. If the adoptive parent is a criminal then the environment is responsible.
Ao2: many adoptive children are adopted in same environment as their biological parents. Early childhood exp may have influenced instead of the adoptive parent.

Social learning theory:
imitate criminal role model , parent etc. Vicarious reinforcement. Determinisitic, ignores freewill, bandura lack exological validity.
Sutherlands: if parent believe it is okay to break certain law they will feel the same to.
Eysenks criminal personality:
Extroversion: requires stimulation: need arousal.
neuroticismsm: emotionally unstable. High anxiety levels
Psychodynamic: weak supergo. May not have a father figure or weak father figure and the odeipus conflict has not been solved therefore identification does not happen so the super ego is underdeveloped.
Harsh superego: feel guilty for id’s satisfaction and punish themself. Commit a crime.
Weak superego: do what the id wants. No control.

Custodial sentencing :
Treatments:
Social skills: lack social skill stherfore commit crimes, if learnt social skills revidisim reduces.macro skill: continuing the convo / micro skills: eyecontact, standing a good distance.Role playing then hear feedback. Increases sef esteem
Ao2:
- Leed likely to be questioned bypolice because of their look and manners.
- May help them in becoming frauds
- Found that sef esteem was increased by just talking about their problems
- Improves act.

Anger management: anger cause of crime.
Cog prep: find out what cause anger, then learn relaxation techniques then do a role play hear feedback.
Ao2: long term effects, helps control their behavious, found that if they attend all sessions that are managed well can improve anger problems. Also in communities programmes are more effective than in institutions.
Token economy: use operant conditioning. Positive inforcement. Use tokens to give to offenders for positive traits i.e following rules etc. , (take food away for neg traits.)
Ao2:
- taking food away is taking their human rights.
- Shot term effects good at controlling but the discontinued after they leave prison. No long term effects.
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