- Frued suggested that feeding food forms attachment: HARLOW’s research disproves this as infant monkeys chose the cloth cylinder rather than the feeding cylinder.
- Bowlby suggests monotropism must exist (one attachment only with one person sually the mother) SCHAFFER’s research disproves this as the babies formed many attachments only 11% had attachment with one figure
- Bowlby’s maternal deprivation theory: if the mother is separated from the child during critical period the child will be grow up and become an intellectual retard, affectionless psychopath, delinquent and suffer from mental disorders etc..
- Harlow’s research was unethical and animal research has problems with generalising.
- Schaffers’s study was longitudinal , may have followed the behaviour overtime.
- Bowlby’s condition of Affectionless psychopaths was made up . baised, used it to support his theory.
-Ainsworth’s strange situation: 3 types of attachment.
Type A: avoidant attachment Type B: secure attachment Type C: ambivalentattachment
- Cross culture variation- does not apply to non western cultures. i.e. Japanese children are ambivent.
- Mothers may feel bad when debriefed. hearing that there child is type C
- Type B is not always bad as it shows independence etc.
Functions of attachment:
- Motherese: talking to the baby in a gentle way, i.e. repeating words ‘gaga’, rhythm, rhyme (how you talk to a baby. )
- Turn taking interactional synchrony: talking to the baby.
- Immediate physical contact: mother cuddling the baby asap after birth.
- Imitation: the baby imitating facial expressions of the adult.
- Motherese is not always nesseary for attachment although it can make turn taking effective.
- Immediate physical contact has short term benefits but long term benfits are unkown.
- In Kenya, they do not cuddle babies, but still have a good relationship and attachment.
Deprivation and Privation:
- Deprivation: had attachment before but lost the person (death divorce etc)
- Privation: no attachment at all.
- Short term deprivation: i.e. a few weeks the mother away in hospital. Does not affect much.
- Long term: during critical period will affect child will become a delinquent. Bowlbys maternal deprivation theory.
- Genie: irreversible effect. Girl suffered from serous privation, was stuck to a potty chair, lived in the same room whole life, was given limited food. Could not walk or speak at the age of 13.
- Kolochova twins: reversible effect. Two twins suffered from privation when mother died and dad remarried. But many argue that this is deprivation as they had each other and had attachment with each other. Therefore was not as extreme as genie.
- case studies cant be generalised. Methodology.
- Genie may have learning difficulties and it may not be the affects of privation.
Affect of institutions.
Rutter: Romanian orphan : had low iq when came to uk, skinny no social skills etc. After four years had average iq and were alot healthier. No difference found between the uk control group. Therefore shows how privation can be reversed.
Roberston and Roberston: adopted children, maintained the same routine as they had in institution, found that they had good relationship with adoptive parents. The quality of care is important.
Friendship changes as you age.
Gender difference: younger children and girls choose to play with same sex friend.
Rose and rodudolph: found
- boys: large network of friends/ rough games/ and when older have interests in sports etc...
- girls: quite games/ pairs/ share stuff and things/help each other/ more intimate.
Rejection and popularity: 4 types: rejected, neglected, popular and disorganised.
Rejected 2 types: aggressive and lack social skills are builled
- Rejected children interrupt play.
- Popular child observes what group of friends are doing then makes positive comments etc..
- Found that rejected children’s later life is affected as they grow up adult life. Have to move school/work. form psychological disorders etc..
- Popluar children remain same, are confident and are still popular as an adult.
just wanted to type w.e I can remember without notes. clearly need to learn the studies