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Edexcel AS unit 1 psychology retake help with key issue; Football hooliganism Watch

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    Hey my key issue for social Psychology is explaining Football hooliganism and I was just wondering what sort of things I need to put with this.

    - Social Identity Theory?
    - Evidence= Sherif?
    - Application to real life i'm not sure on though?

    Thanks!
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    (Original post by SJH128)
    Hey my key issue for social Psychology is explaining Football hooliganism and I was just wondering what sort of things I need to put with this.

    - Social Identity Theory?
    - Evidence= Sherif?
    - Application to real life i'm not sure on though?

    Thanks!
    Explain what football hooliganism is.
    It can be explained either through prejudice or obedience.
    Prejudice - SIT.
    SIT says that simply being in a group (supporting one team) and the acknowledgment of an out group (the other team's supporters) is enough for prejudice to occur.

    Social categorisation has already occured because people support one team or the other.

    Wearing the football strip, singing certain songs an sitting in the home or away section (which ever is applicable) all act as social identification and these strengthen the supporters (in group) in group identity.

    Then, in order to raise the in group's (supporters of one team's) self esteem they will display either in group favouritism (e.g. chanting about how their team is better than the other) or, out group discrimination (e.g. fighting against the other team).

    This is supported by Tajfel's minimal group studies who found ps who were randomly assigned to one of two groups and told to give points to anyone in both groups gave more points to members of their own group (in group favouritism).

    It could be that supporters are obedient to a ring leader who instills the violence. Milgram's Agency Theory explains this that, if someone who is perceived as a legitimate authority figure gives you an orders then you will carry it out due to both an evolutionary reason and the fact we have been taught it in schools and by parents.

    This is supported by Milgram's 1963 who found that 65% of ps obeyed orders to shock (inflict physical pain) an innocent victim to 450V. As well as Meeus and Raaijmakers (1986) who found that 92% of ps read all 15 stress remarks. This shows us how people will follow orders to harm someone else.

    Another explanation could be realistic conflict theory which states that when two groups compete for a limited resource (i.e. league points) then prejudice will occur.

    This is supported by Sherif (1961) who found that when competition was introduced between two group that the groups burned the others' flag and stole their prizes. However, before the competition was introduced and the two were made aware of each other prejudice occurred as members of one group described their own as 'brave' and members of the opposite group as 'sneakers' which supports social identity theory.

    Other supporting evidence includes Lalonde who found a consistently failing ice hockey team blamed their shortcomings on the opposing team playing 'dirty' - out group discrimination.

    However, a lot of this supporting evidence lacks occurred in lab environments where artificial tasks were carried out and thus their results lack both ecological and experimental validity.


    Please note that Sherif is more supporting evidence for realistic conflict theory than social identity theory.

    Football hooliganism is the application to real life.
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    (Original post by Neon-Soldier32)
    Explain what football hooliganism is.
    It can be explained either through prejudice or obedience.
    Prejudice - SIT.
    SIT says that simply being in a group (supporting one team) and the acknowledgment of an out group (the other team's supporters) is enough for prejudice to occur.

    Social categorisation has already occured because people support one team or the other.

    Wearing the football strip, singing certain songs an sitting in the home or away section (which ever is applicable) all act as social identification and these strengthen the supporters (in group) in group identity.

    Then, in order to raise the in group's (supporters of one team's) self esteem they will display either in group favouritism (e.g. chanting about how their team is better than the other) or, out group discrimination (e.g. fighting against the other team).

    This is supported by Tajfel's minimal group studies who found ps who were randomly assigned to one of two groups and told to give points to anyone in both groups gave more points to members of their own group (in group favouritism).

    It could be that supporters are obedient to a ring leader who instills the violence. Milgram's Agency Theory explains this that, if someone who is perceived as a legitimate authority figure gives you an orders then you will carry it out due to both an evolutionary reason and the fact we have been taught it in schools and by parents.

    This is supported by Milgram's 1963 who found that 65% of ps obeyed orders to shock (inflict physical pain) an innocent victim to 450V. As well as Meeus and Raaijmakers (1986) who found that 92% of ps read all 15 stress remarks. This shows us how people will follow orders to harm someone else.

    Another explanation could be realistic conflict theory which states that when two groups compete for a limited resource (i.e. league points) then prejudice will occur.

    This is supported by Sherif (1961) who found that when competition was introduced between two group that the groups burned the others' flag and stole their prizes. However, before the competition was introduced and the two were made aware of each other prejudice occurred as members of one group described their own as 'brave' and members of the opposite group as 'sneakers' which supports social identity theory.

    Other supporting evidence includes Lalonde who found a consistently failing ice hockey team blamed their shortcomings on the opposing team playing 'dirty' - out group discrimination.

    However, a lot of this supporting evidence lacks occurred in lab environments where artificial tasks were carried out and thus their results lack both ecological and experimental validity.


    Please note that Sherif is more supporting evidence for realistic conflict theory than social identity theory.

    Football hooliganism is the application to real life.
    Thank you!!!
 
 
 
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