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    Is there a easy way to remember when its either electrophilic addition/substitution or free radical/nucleophilic addition substitution? I seem to always get muddled up? someone mind explaining to me the different mechanisms and when they occur and with which reagents?

    Electrophilic substitution, for the sake of simplicity, is associated with Benzene more than anything else. If your compound isn't aromatic, then it doesn't undergo electrophilic substitution!

    Free Radical Substitution only ever occurs with Alkanes.

    Electrophilic Addition involves adding an electrophile across a double bond to make it a single bond. It most commonly occurs with alkenes.

    Nucleophilic Addition is the mechanism for the reduction of Ketones/Aldehydes to alcohols; the C=O bond is the key to this one.

    Nucleophilic Substitution is usually associated with haloalkanes and amines; common nucleophiles are NH3, halogens, and OH ions. Sometimes they'll slip cyanide in, however, CN or associated compounds i.e. KCN, Potassium Cyanide.

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