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    • Thread Starter

    • The application of psychology to everyday life (its usefulness)
    • Ecological validity
    • Ethics
    • Ethnocentric bias
    • Reliability and validity
    • Individual and situational explanations
    • Nature and nurture
    • Psychometrics
    • Quantitative and qualitative data
    • Generalisations
    • Snapshot and longitudinal data
    • The use of children in psychological research
    • The use of animals in psychological
    • Reductionism

    I need to get info of these terms which include definition, advantages and disadvantages. And a little information. I have a test on monday and don't know anything!

    Ecological Validity-How far something is generalisable to the real world. For example, a natural experiment is high in ecological validity because it's realistic but a laboratory experiment is low as it's likely to be artificial. It's usually seen as a good thing the more of this you have but a downside is that it may be down to extraneous variables affecting the results so you don't know what's affecting what!

    Ethics-What's seen as morally right or wrong. BPS has a set guideline of ethics for Psychological studies which include; deception, protection from harm (physical and psychological), confidentiality and informed consent. Researchers must stick to these guidelines or keep as close as possible to them if it would ruin the experiment if fully followed. For example, deception is needed in studies about misleading information, so a debrief is essential.

    Reliability-how concise your experiment is. Usually tested with a split-test (split a questionnaire in half, give it to two sets of PP's, if they score the same you're reliable) or a inter-rater reliability test (ask researchers to compare categories/methods and see if they agree).

    Validity- split into two types. Internal: Does your experiment actually do what it's meant to do? Are there any EV's affecting the DV? External: How far the study can be applied to the real world.

    Nurture-The theory that everything is learned through our environment and the way we are raised. The mind is blank at birth.

    Nature-The theory that we have innate abilities/behaviours.

    Quantitative data-Expressed in numbers. It's easy to analyse but a lot of rich information is lost.

    Qualitative data-Expressed in words, usually converted to numbers via categorisation. Rich information but hard to analyse.

    Generalisations-Taking one part of something and applying it to the whole. For example, applying a case study to the whole of the world's population. This can only be done when there's a suitable sample size.

    Snapshot data- Data that reflects one moment in time. For example a laboratory study. Might not truly reflect the target population.

    Longitudinal data-Data that reflects something carried out over a long period of time. For example a case study that's been carried out over someone's entire life. It's time consuming but is potentially more reliable and allows greater insight.

    Reductionism-Reducing something to a very simple state. For example learning theory does this by reducing attachment to basic responses.

    That's everything I got about them, sorry it's not all of them. Hope I helped!
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Updated: January 5, 2013
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