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OCR AS Psychology: G542: Core Studies - Wednesday 5th June 2013 Watch

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    (Original post by leanne1996)
    Guys if i was to get an a in the psychological investigations exam, how much would i need in this exam to get an A overall?
    Its 112 ums for an A on core studies and 48 ums for an A on psych investigations! So what ums did you get on psych investigations? Subtract that from 160 and that'll be the ums you ned on core studies to get an A
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    (Original post by random1234567)
    ahh goodluck in youre bio exam
    Thank you
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    (Original post by jodie.irwin27)
    hey guys, found some good resources for the advantages and disadvantages of the physiological approach.

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/g/re...hysiological_3

    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/g/re...hysiological_4

    if you want any for the other approaches, click on the persons name who created the resource
    Lol you found my revision cards hope they helped
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    (Original post by mkhan9035)
    So i'm doing model answers for Baron-Cohen and i'm answering the questions from Jan 09's paper but if Baron-Cohen, Reicher and Haslam and Sperry came up (considering they've only been asked once in the history of core studies papers) what issues would they compare th study on? If it is ecological validity, would it relate to it being a lab experiment, the sample, the method, Procedure? I'm confused
    Man im screwed if Baron doesnt come up
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    (Original post by random1234567)
    Man im screwed if Baron doesnt come up
    Lol same, i'd wanna rip the exam up if baron-cohen amd physiological approach didn't come up
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    (Original post by mkhan9035)
    Lol same, i'd wanna rip the exam up if baron-cohen amd physiological approach didn't come up
    Yh lol I have a good feeling that Baron may come up though
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    How could you talk about ethics in realtion to Samuel and Bryant?

    All i can think of is consent.
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    (Original post by random1234567)
    Yh lol I have a good feeling that Baron may come up though
    Fingers crossed, just hope the questions in section B are straightforward and not too hard! I swear i've done loads of revision for this exam, just want my hard work to pay off :confused:
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    Just another question! When you are doing changed and implications for example if you have two changes. In terms of implicatioe ins do you have to write like one reason why the implication is good and why the implication is bad? Does it have to follow s structure in order to ontain good marks can you just write say 2 bad implications and one good implication of the changes?
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    (Original post by mkhan9035)
    Lol you found my revision cards hope they helped
    oh my god they're yours haha! yeah they really did, they're great thank you! haha
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    (Original post by Simran Mars Foster)
    Just another question! When you are doing changed and implications for example if you have two changes. In terms of implicatioe ins do you have to write like one reason why the implication is good and why the implication is bad? Does it have to follow s structure in order to ontain good marks can you just write say 2 bad implications and one good implication of the changes?
    i don't think you do to be honest, otherwise it would have said evaluate not state implications

    implications just refers to how your change would affect the results, suppose it can either be good or bad points or both, don't think you have to have a balance or anything
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    Heyy guys does anyone know the dependent variable for maguire's study and the independent and dependent variable for Dement and Kleitman's study?? I can't seem to find it anywhere! ! thank you for the help! !
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    My Model Answers for Baron-Cohen (these are in response to Section B in the Jan 2009 exam):

    Q. (a) Briefly outline the previous research or event which was the stimulus for your chosen study. [2]

    A. Baron-Cohen had previously carried out research on autistic children using the Sally-Ann test and found that the majority of autistic children did not display theory of mind skills. However he claimed the tests used with children were inappropriate for assessing the more advanced theory of mind skills found in adults. A new test (The Eyes Test) was therefore devised to test these skills in normal, autistic and Tourette’s Syndrome adults.

    *note if question (a) was on the aim of the study this would be the answer:

    A. The main aim of Baron-Cohen's experiment was to investigate if high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome would be impaired on a theory of mind test called the Eyes Task and they were also interested to find out if females would be better than males on the the Eyes Task.

    Q. (B) Describe how the sample in your chosen study was selected and suggest one advantage of using this sample. [6]

    A. Baron-Cohen selected three groups of participants. 16 high functioning adults with autism or Asperger’s Syndrome were recruited from a variety of clinical sources and an advert in the National Autistic Society magazine. The gender split in this group was 13 male and 3 female. 50 normal adults drawn from the general population of Cambridge selected randomly from a subject panel held by Cambridge University. In this group the gender split was even with 25 male amd 25 female participants. 10 adult patients with Tourette’s Syndrome were recruited from a tertiary referral centre in London. The gender split in this group was 8 males and 2 females.
    An advantage of using this sample is that Baron-Cohen used both autistic adults and adults with Tourette’s Syndrome, he was able to show that an impaired theory of mind was a specific deficit associated with the autistic spectrum and not other cognitive disorder.

    Q. (C) Explain why your chosen study can be considered a lab experiment. [6]

    A. Baron-Cohen’s study can be considered at laboratory experiment because it mainly took place in an artificial environment with specifically devised tasks to investigate theory of mind skills. Although some participants were tested in their own homes, others reported to either the researchers’ clinic or a laboratory in Cambridge University – both of these environments being unfamiliar to participants making the study lack ecological validity, a characteristic of laboratory experiments. The Eyes Task was specifically designed for the test and lacked realism – individuals are not normally expected to read emotions merely from photographs of eyes. A number of controls were enforced to make the test fair for all participants e.g. the Eyes task, the Strange Stories and the two control tasks (gender recognition of eyes and basic emotion recognition task) were presented in random order to all participants to prevent order effects influencing results, the same 25 standardised photographs were presented in the same order to all participants. The independent variable was manipulated by the researchers using three different groups of participants – autistic adults, normal adults, adults with Tourette’s Syndrome which allowed them to measure the dependent variable – performance on the Eyes Task. This allowed Baron-Cohen to identify cause an effect – the reason some individuals lack theory of mind skills is because they are autistic; and the standardised procedure e.g. showing each picture for 3 seconds and then asking each participant a forced choice question, meant the study could easily be replicated both of which are features of laboratory experiments.

    Q. (D) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of conducting your chosen study in a lab. [6]

    A. An advantage of conducting Baron-Cohen’s study in a laboratory was that it allowed a high level of control to be exercised which meant the study could be replicated, allowing reliability to be checked.. For example the fact that all participants completed the Eyes Task, the Strange Stories and the two control tasks – the gender recognition task and the basic emotion recognition task, followed the same standardised procedure and as the order was randomised it prevented order effects. This allowed the study to be repeated with 16 autistic adults, 50 ‘normal’ adults and 10 adult with Tourette’s Syndrome allowing Baron-Cohen to identify the effects of cognitive disability on theory of mind skills.
    A disadvantage of conducting Baron-Cohen’s study in a laboratory was that the controlled environment and unrealistic tasks lacked ecological validity. For example all the participants were tested individually in a controlled environment, a quiet room in their own home, in the researchers’ clinics or in a laboratory at Cambridge University, where they were shown the same 25 standardised photographs of eyes, each for exactly 3 seconds. This is a disadvatage because the environment would have been strange for those tested in either the clinic or laboratory and may have been strange for the autistic participants who do not generally cope well in such situations which therefore shows the results may not reflect the way people respond in real-life situations.

    Q. (E) Suggest how your chosen study could be improved [8]

    A. Baron-Cohen’s study could be improved by making sure there was an equal number of participants in each experimental group e.g. 50 adult autistics, 50 ‘normal’ adults and 50 adults with Tourette’s Syndrome. The study could also involve an equal number of males and females and participants could be drawn from countries as well as Britain. The environment and task could also be made more realistic. All participants in each experimental group could be tested at the same time with the test being treated as a ‘game’ played during a Christmas Party. Each participant could be given a pre-designed, standardised recording chart (like a bingo card). A data projector could then show photographs of full faces of both men and women and participants had to mark on their card (i) the gender of the person being shown (ii) the emotion (selected from a choice of 2) they think the person is showing. This would improve the ecological validity of the study and participants will respond naturally and honestly so findings are more valid. Ethics can be covered as participants can give consent to take part or withdraw by not participating; they are unlikely to become stressed as the test will be seen as a game; they will can be debriefed afterwards when the winner is announced.

    Q. (F) Outline the inplications of the improvements you have suggested for your chosen study. [8]

    A. By Making sure there was an equal number of participants in each experimental group e.g. 50 adult autistics, 50 ‘normal’ adults and 50 adults with Tourette’s Syndrome would make comparisons between the three groups easier to make and the results of the study would be more valid. Involving an equal number of males and females, and participants drawn from Britain and other cultures, would make the results more generalisable and allow researchers to identify any gender and cultural differences in theory of mind skills in both normal adults and individuals with cognitive deficits. It is likely that all participants will give similar response in the emotion recognition task to those found by Baron-Cohen as basic emotions seem to be portrayed in the same way by all cultures suggesting they are instinctive and therefore due to nature. Gender identification may differ between cultures depending on how stereotypical images of males and females are portrayed within each culture. Improving the ecological validity of the study by making the Eyes Test a ‘party game’ will lead participants to respond in a more natural and genuine manner meaning the results will be more valid and useful. An implication of this though is that the autistic participants may have difficulty ‘playing the game’ as they find unusual social situations difficult to cope with. The activity will therefore have to be explained to them carefully. Other implications for the suggested improvements are that they will increase the cost and time needed to conduct the study. There may also be language difficulties if the test is done in other cultures indicating that an interpreter may be needed. This will again lead to increased time and cost and offers a greater chance of misinterpretation leading to invalid findings.

    Hope this helps
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    (Original post by jodie.irwin27)
    i don't think you do to be honest, otherwise it would have said evaluate not state implications

    implications just refers to how your change would affect the results, suppose it can either be good or bad points or both, don't think you have to have a balance or anything

    Ahh! So you can just write all good points of the implications if you wanted to?
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    (Original post by Billie Jean)
    Heyy guys does anyone know the dependent variable for maguire's study and the independent and dependent variable for Dement and Kleitman's study?? I can't seem to find it anywhere! ! thank you for the help! !
    The DV for Maguire's study was the area/density/volume of the grey matter in the hippocampus

    And as far as i'm aware there was no IV for Dement and Kleitman's study as the hypothesis was what they manipulated and investigated (correct me if i'm wrong)
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    Woooooooooooooww that is verrrryy helpfulf thank you soooo much ;D you just made my day much easier!!! I think you might even get full marks for that! Did you do that all by yourself?!
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    (Original post by sophiecoles95)
    can anyone help me with improvements to the Dement and Kleitman study?
    Use more participants as the sample was to small (only 9 p's from america)
    More females as well
    Maybe test the participants in their natural environment

    Effect to the results:

    Using more p's including females could make the sample more representative and generalisable, less gender biased
    By testing the p's in their own home it can increase the ecological validity but it can have ethical implications i.e invasion of privacy, protection from harm etc
    Hope that helps, did this from memory
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    (Original post by Billie Jean)
    Woooooooooooooww that is verrrryy helpfulf thank you soooo much ;D you just made my day much easier!!! I think you might even get full marks for that! Did you do that all by yourself?!
    Hope it helps haha and yeah I did. I used my notes just to do my point, but the evidence and explanation i did from memory
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    [QUOTE=mkhan9035;42917131]The DV for Maguire's study was the area/density/volume of the grey matter in the hippocampus

    And as far as i'm aware there was no IV for Dement and Kleitman's study as the hypothesis was what they manipulated and investigated (correct me if i'm wrong)

    Thank you soo much!! and yes I don't think there was a dv but I was just wondering in case because I couldn't find it anywhere
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    (Original post by Simran Mars Foster)
    Just another question! When you are doing changed and implications for example if you have two changes. In terms of implicatioe ins do you have to write like one reason why the implication is good and why the implication is bad? Does it have to follow s structure in order to ontain good marks can you just write say 2 bad implications and one good implication of the changes?
    We've been told to do 2 changes each with a good implication and a bad implication.


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