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OCR AS Psychology: G542: Core Studies - Wednesday 5th June 2013 Watch

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    (Original post by --K)
    How the behaviourist perspective explains conformity in Tyrannical Regimes
    Behaviourists assume behaviour is learnt from others. Therefore people who act tyrannically must learn from others acting this way around them. Operant conditioning would explain that people act tyrannically due to negative reinforcement- having unpleasant stimuli taken away if they act tyrannically. In Reicher & Haslam’s study, the conformity (agreement) of some prisoners was to remove the pressure they were under to conform (obey the rules). The guards were also negatively reinforced to avoid contact with the prisoners (moving back to their quarters to avoid mock) allowing tyranny to take over.

    How the behaviourist perspective explains acquisition of language.
    We are all born as a blank slate and our environment shapes and determines behaviour. Operant conditioning would explain why the chimps would complete tasks due to positive reinforcement – given food when presses the right button. In Savage- Rumbaugh’s study positive reinforcement was used whenever a chimp got a letter correct on the lexigram. The chimps were positively reinforced so they are more likely to carry on getting rewards.


    How the behaviourist perspective explains helping behaviour.
    Pilliavin’s experiment was to see if passengers would help out the model when they fell down. There was positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. In Pilliavin’s study, the participants were more likely to help the cane victim than the drunk, as the positive reinforcement for helping the can victim is greater. There was also negative reinforcement because by helping, the unpleasant situation is removed, more people helped because of this- there was an increase in helping behaviour.

    How the behaviourist perspective explains gambling addiction
    Behaviourists assume everyone is born with a blank slate and therefore gambling is fixed by the environment. Operant conditioning would explain why people risk losing money due to negative reinforcement- taking away the feeling of loss by risking more money. In Griffith’s study when losing money on the machine they had to put another pound in to try and win again, creating negative reinforcement when they do get pay out. When you lose money you are negatively reinforced to put more money in, there is positive reinforcement when you win.

    How the behaviourist perspective explains phobias.
    The person is born as a blank state so what they see in their environment can produce the phobia. Phobias are an example of classical conditioning- a person learns throughout their life to relate a neutral (unbiased) stimulus (motivation) with feeling of fear. Hans heard a child being told not to go too close to the horse as it would bite. This created a phobia. Therefore phobias clear themselves into fear of neutral stimuli as a result of various contributing environmental factors, mostly negative experiences held by other or past experiences such as the case of Little Hans.

    Describe how the behaviourist perspective could explain obedience.

    Behaviourists assume behaviour is learnt from others. Therefore people that obey figures of authority must have learnt to obey figures from a young age. Nazi soldiers obeyed officers to reduce the pressure put on them (negative reinforcement.) In Milgram’s study, People carried on pressing the button to give the shocks because they were under pressure and they wanted to reduce the pressure from the researcher. Therefore we obey to remove unpleasant pressure from authority figures.


    Describe how the behaviourist perspective could explain aggression.
    Aggressive behaviour is created by a person’s environment; the behaviour is learnt as we are all born as a blank slate. The social learning theory would explain why aggressive behaviour would then reproduce this behaviour, if they wanted to act that way they would be motivated to. Bandura’s study of aggression, the children copied the adult role models action and started aggression towards the bobo doll. The children had the ability to reproduce the behaviour because there was a mini doll and they were motivated by the arousal.


    hey where did you get all this info?! is there a website! i would be so so grateful if you could show me where i can get this for all the approaches!
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    (Original post by mkhan9035)
    Thanks, gosh didn't think there were that many studies :/ do you have the assumptions, similarities and differences also the strengths and weaknesses cause i've lost my notes and i'm panicking I feel unmotivated to revise this perspective now


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    Have a look at the file I attached
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: docx Behaviourist Approach.docx (18.5 KB, 709 views)
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    (Original post by rosieamphlett)
    Everyone seems so confident about Physiological, I don't understand what you'd write for a 12 mark on physiological like strengths/weaknesses and what studies?
    use the PEE format

    strength:
    use of scientific equipment

    practical applications/usefulness

    weaknesses:
    use of lab experiments

    samples are relatively small

    these are just some ideas to get you thinking. of course theres others. but its always a good idea to use the PEE format
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    (Original post by richarddawkins)
    hey where did you get all this info?! is there a website! i would be so so grateful if you could show me where i can get this for all the approaches!
    (Original post by Simran Mars Foster)
    What are similarities and differences between studies that take the Behaviorist approach?
    Yea some-one on this thread posted the link of the website, I forgot, But I will try and find it for you, But I have wrote down all the stuff about the Behaviourist perspective on a document - Look at the attachment I Have attached above.
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    (Original post by --K)
    Have a look at the file I attached
    oh my god please do you have this for the other approaches/perspectives? i have no notes on it our teacher didnt teach this section to us! please?
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    (Original post by gabbyearl)
    difference: samples used- thigpen and cleckley have one participant (eve) whereas Griffiths had 60 subjects (44 male and 16 female, mean age 23.4 years)
    similarity: both rosenhan and Griffiths make use of field experiments. (rosenhan took place in USA hospitals and Griffiths in a real gambling setting on real fruit machines).
    Thank you, much appreciated!
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    (Original post by richarddawkins)
    hey where did you get all this info?! is there a website! i would be so so grateful if you could show me where i can get this for all the approaches!
    Ohh for all approaches, damn. I Looked at a lot of websites! Literally, I have put all the information in these attachements - I don't have one for social & Cognitive- They came up In Jan! So I doubt they'll come up again
    Attached Files
  2. File Type: docx Physiological Approach.docx (16.8 KB, 590 views)
  3. File Type: docx Psychodynamic Perspective.docx (16.3 KB, 668 views)
  4. File Type: docx Section C Developmental Approach.docx (16.0 KB, 1402 views)
  5. File Type: docx The Individual Differences Approach.docx (13.9 KB, 725 views)
    • Thread Starter
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    (Original post by --K)
    Have a look at the file I attached
    Thank you
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    (Original post by --K)
    Ohh for all approaches, damn. I Looked at a lot of websites! Literally, I have put all the information in these attachements - I don't have one for social & Cognitive- They came up In Jan! So I doubt they'll come up again
    i have never in all my life been so incredibly grateful to someone! thank you so so so much! you literally just brought me up a grade in the exam - ive been looking for notes everywhere! seriously, thank you so much this is lovely of you
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    (Original post by richarddawkins)
    i have never in all my life been so incredibly grateful to someone! thank you so so so much! you literally just brought me up a grade in the exam - ive been looking for notes everywhere! seriously, thank you so much this is lovely of you
    Awwww Ahahaha No Problem & Don't worries Hope they help! Good Luck!
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    (Original post by --K)
    Awwww Ahahaha No Problem & Don't worries Hope they help! Good Luck!
    is this all the infomation i need for section C? or is there other stuff i need to learn too? (:
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    (Original post by gabbyearl)
    evaluating Maguire: issue-sample. improvement: include women in sample who are matched to the age of the male participants (matched groups design). and also taxi drivers from other countries eg India. Implications- more representative and generalizable BUT time consuming and more costly.

    evaluating Samuel and Bryant: issue-ecological validity as it was lab exp. improvement: should take place in a primary school as a field experiment where children could do the conservation task as part of their lessons and observed by discrete researchers. implications: better EV, fewer demand characteristics BUT time consuming and would be an unrepresentative sample. (that's you sorted for section b evaluation for those studies but for section a its probs most important to learn some results of all the studies eg 2850 words acquired by Kanzi in savage rumbaugh, and 14% of participants in Griffiths used heuristics, and taxi drivers were found to have a larger posterior hippocampi than non-taxi drivers). (ps hope that helped, my brain is sizzled now haahah)

    Wow it did thank you so much!:p:o
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    Can someone out line the studies for section A, B and C?


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    (Original post by richarddawkins)
    is this all the infomation i need for section C? or is there other stuff i need to learn too? (:
    For section c? Yup that's all
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    predictions guys ?
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    (Original post by --K)
    For section c? Yup that's all
    damn i could actually marry you. good luck tomorrow!!!
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    (Original post by --k)
    ohh for all approaches, damn. I looked at a lot of websites! Literally, i have put all the information in these attachements - i don't have one for social & cognitive- they came up in jan! So i doubt they'll come up again


    OH MY they are brill! THANK YOU!
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    (Original post by richarddawkins)
    damn i could actually marry you. good luck tomorrow!!!
    LOOOOOOOOL Same Goes To You!
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    (Original post by Simran Mars Foster)
    OH MY they are brill! THANK YOU!
    No Problemo Glad I was Help (:
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    Praying for "nice" Section A questions (that I can actually answer without going da f**k), Baron-Cohen in Section B and Physiological approach Section C!!
 
 
 
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