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OCR A2 Psychology: G544: Approaches and Research Methods - Monday 17th June 2013 Watch

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    Does anyone know what exactly we are supposed to talk about when it asks in section B for you to describe two studies that take the ... approach etc?
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    No problem

    Hmm not too sure, if it was aqa then you could use the UMS converter to figure out raw marks and how they equal to UMS points but because Psychology is with the OCR board I'm not sure.

    I just took the marks you gave (presuming that they were UMS points) and calculated how much you would need to get an A/B grade.
    yeah they were UMS marks ok thanks i'll give that a try and see
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    (Original post by Cryl)
    Great! Thanks. Do you have any strengths and weaknesses for the free will issue?
    I have for determinism but not for free will, I did an essay a while back on determinism and free will, but the majority of it focused on the determinism side, probably because there is more to talk about, and that will probs be the case in the exam (I'm hoping!) as well as for reductionism and holism, with the focus more being on reductionism

    So I don't really have any strengths and weaknesses for free will, but do you want the strengths and weaknesses of determinism, or have you already got them?
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    (Original post by em6789)
    yeah they were UMS marks ok thanks i'll give that a try and see
    Oh ok well in that case its easy you said you got 54 UMS for G541 and 90 UMS for G542 so that gives you 144 for AS then if you need to get an A overall you would need to get 88 on both G543 and G544 which equals to 176 and then if you add your UMS points of AS and UMS points of A2 if you get the 176 then it should equal 320 which is an exact A

    Same goes for a B overall you would calculate AS UMS marks then add that to 136 UMS which means you will need to get 68 UMS on both G543 and G544 either lose a mark or gain a mark on the other paper which will give you 280 UMS points equalling a B

    Don't use the AQA UMS converter because thats only for AQA subjects not OCR.
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    Does anyone know what exactly we are supposed to talk about when it asks in section B for you to describe two studies that take the ... approach etc?
    You need to describe them in detail, but MOST IMPORTANTLY after giving a description of the study, them link it back to the question, i.e. if the question says "Describe any two pieces of research which take the cognitive approach" after giving a description of the study, then you must say why that study takes the cognitive approach, that is where most people lose their marks as they forget to say why the study takes that approach/debate/issue etc. To further strengthen your point, as question a has asked you to describe the approach/debate/issue, try and link in what you have said in question a into question b as you are then reiterating what you have said in question a into question b. (I hope you get me, I'm not very good at explaining haha!) If you still don't get it I can give you an example?
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    (Original post by AvaSofia)
    You need to describe them in detail, but MOST IMPORTANTLY after giving a description of the study, them link it back to the question, i.e. if the question says "Describe any two pieces of research which take the cognitive approach" after giving a description of the study, then you must say why that study takes the cognitive approach, that is where most people lose their marks as they forget to say why the study takes that approach/debate/issue etc. To further strengthen your point, as question a has asked you to describe the approach/debate/issue, try and link in what you have said in question a into question b as you are then reiterating what you have said in question a into question b. (I hope you get me, I'm not very good at explaining haha!) If you still don't get it I can give you an example?
    Thanks I think I got the first part but then got confused where you mention link what you say to question a into question b? :/ also in terms of detail what do we mention? aim/procedure/results that sort of thing? and how would we say it takes that approach? I could do with an example
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    Thanks I think I got the first part but then got confused where you mention link what you say to question a into question b? :/ also in terms of detail what do we mention? aim/procedure/results that sort of thing? and how would we say it takes that approach? I could do with an example
    Ahaha I realised that that part sounded confusing! Okay, this one is on determinism and free will (also on which is likely to come up!)

    a) Using your knowledge of psychology, outline the determinism/free-will debate in psychology.

    Determinism is the belief that all human behaviour results from a cause and that once a cause has been established; we can explain present behaviour and predict future behaviour. Determinism can be sub-divided into 4 types: genetical behaviourism, which states that our behaviour results from our genes and is therefore pre-determined at conception; biological determinism, which assumes that behaviour is determined by biological processes, for example chemicals, hormones and neurological processes; behavioural determinism, which assumes that behaviour is learnt and that the cause of our behaviour comes from our environment; and finally there is psychodynamic determinism, which states that our behaviour is determined by our unconscious thoughts and early childhood traumas. On the other hand, the free will approach assumes that humans can choose our behaviour and we are responsible for our own actions. This debate is perceived as a continuum.

    b) Describe how any two pieces of psychological research that you have studied could be considered deterministic.

    The study by Gottesman & Shields reviewed research on genetic transmission of schizophrenia. In order to do this, they reviewed 3 adoption studies and 5 twin studies- using monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In the adoption studies they compared biological parents and siblings and adoptive parents and siblings, whilst in the twin studies, the concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins was compared. Gottesman & Shields found that in all 3 adoption studies, there was an increased incidence of schizophrenia in adopted children with a schizophrenic parent, whereas normal children fostered to schizophrenic parent and adoptive parents of schizophrenic children showed little evidence of schizophrenia. All twin studies found a higher concordance rate for schizophrenia in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a significant genetic input into the onset of schizophrenia, thus meaning that this study is high is genetic determinism, as it is assuming that schizophrenia results from our genes and is pre-determined at birth, so this behaviour results from a genetic cause and is not up to free will.

    I have only done one example for part b but its 4/4 marks and so is part a. After I have explained the study I have then said why it is deterministic, therefore linking back to question b which is a must. But what I mean about linking it with part a is that I have purposely said this is genetic determinism and backed it with the definition I had given in part a, so I am backing up the assumption I made in part a, so I am reiterating myself, making my point stronger. I hope you get me a bit more now? It's kinda hard to explain haha
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    (Original post by AvaSofia)
    Ahaha I realised that that part sounded confusing! Okay, this one is on determinism and free will (also on which is likely to come up!)

    a) Using your knowledge of psychology, outline the determinism/free-will debate in psychology.

    Determinism is the belief that all human behaviour results from a cause and that once a cause has been established; we can explain present behaviour and predict future behaviour. Determinism can be sub-divided into 4 types: genetical behaviourism, which states that our behaviour results from our genes and is therefore pre-determined at conception; biological determinism, which assumes that behaviour is determined by biological processes, for example chemicals, hormones and neurological processes; behavioural determinism, which assumes that behaviour is learnt and that the cause of our behaviour comes from our environment; and finally there is psychodynamic determinism, which states that our behaviour is determined by our unconscious thoughts and early childhood traumas. On the other hand, the free will approach assumes that humans can choose our behaviour and we are responsible for our own actions. This debate is perceived as a continuum.

    b) Describe how any two pieces of psychological research that you have studied could be considered deterministic.

    The study by Gottesman & Shields reviewed research on genetic transmission of schizophrenia. In order to do this, they reviewed 3 adoption studies and 5 twin studies- using monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In the adoption studies they compared biological parents and siblings and adoptive parents and siblings, whilst in the twin studies, the concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins was compared. Gottesman & Shields found that in all 3 adoption studies, there was an increased incidence of schizophrenia in adopted children with a schizophrenic parent, whereas normal children fostered to schizophrenic parent and adoptive parents of schizophrenic children showed little evidence of schizophrenia. All twin studies found a higher concordance rate for schizophrenia in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a significant genetic input into the onset of schizophrenia, thus meaning that this study is high is genetic determinism, as it is assuming that schizophrenia results from our genes and is pre-determined at birth, so this behaviour results from a genetic cause and is not up to free will.

    I have only done one example for part b but its 4/4 marks and so is part a. After I have explained the study I have then said why it is deterministic, therefore linking back to question b which is a must. But what I mean about linking it with part a is that I have purposely said this is genetic determinism and backed it with the definition I had given in part a, so I am backing up the assumption I made in part a, so I am reiterating myself, making my point stronger. I hope you get me a bit more now? It's kinda hard to explain haha
    Everything makes sense apart from the last part and now I feel stupid I still don't get what you mean about the linking part
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    Oh ok well in that case its easy you said you got 54 UMS for G541 and 90 UMS for G542 so that gives you 144 for AS then if you need to get an A overall you would need to get 88 on both G543 and G544 which equals to 176 and then if you add your UMS points of AS and UMS points of A2 if you get the 176 then it should equal 320 which is an exact A

    Same goes for a B overall you would calculate AS UMS marks then add that to 136 UMS which means you will need to get 68 UMS on both G543 and G544 either lose a mark or gain a mark on the other paper which will give you 280 UMS points equalling a B

    Don't use the AQA UMS converter because thats only for AQA subjects not OCR.
    ok thank you for your help
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    (Original post by daydreamer.15)
    Determinism: behaviour is a shaped by internal or external factors rather than an individual's will or choice to act in a certain way. This means that behaviour can be predicted.
    Strength: it is scientific in that it attempts to establish cause and effect and general laws for behaviour. This enables the development of practical applications.
    Eg milgram's study was deterministic as it states that the participants negative behaviour (giving electric shocks) was caused by the presence of the authority figure and the situation that the ps found themselves in (eg in a lab at the prestigious yale university), therefore suggesting that obedience behaviour is not down to personal choice.

    Weakness: explanations are too simplistic and therefore become reductionist. They also remove an individuals responsibility for their actions, raising problems as to whether people can be blamed and punished for behaviours that are out of their control.
    Eg in milgram's explanation for high levels of obedience are too simplistic as there may have been other factors such as personality differences affecting their behaviour, esp since not all ps kept giving shocks of 450v (35% broke off before then).
    Other deterministic studies you can use are Raine and Watson and Raynor.

    Free will: individuals do have active roles on controlling their own behaviour, ie they are free to choose and our not acting in response to internal or external factors.
    I think you'd be less likely to have to talk about free will since there aren't many studies that actually use this as an explanation for behaviour, except maybe for Pilliavin whereby people did choose whether or not to help, but whether or not they did help was influenced by the IVs, so there were some external factors in place too.
    Strength: individuals can be punished for their actions, creating a fairer society
    Weakness: behaviour is harder to predict and explanations are less scientific as there is no clear cause and effect society.

    Obviously you'd have to expand on those points to get good marks but I hope you understand it better. Let me know if you don't, I'm happy to help.


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    as an example for a strength of the free will side of the debate, could you use yochelson and samenow, cos they're basically trying to prove that they CAN be held accountable for their actions, right?
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    Oh also for Q2 (the making the experiment) remember to include HOW you split the participants into groups, because in most of the mark schemes if you do not include this you CANNOT get out of the 0-4 mark boundary
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    Everything makes sense apart from the last part and now I feel stupid I still don't get what you mean about the linking part
    basically when you say why that study is deterministic/whatever the issue is, just make sure what you say is similar to what you have put in question a, as the whole point of question a is to state the assumption and definitions etc. so if what you say in question b is not like question a then you would be contradicting yourself, as it would be a waste of time saying the deterministic approach says this, this and this, but then not say them things in the second question.

    Your not being stupid, its just my awful explaining haha!
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    (Original post by Cryl)
    Hmm, struggling with strengths and weaknesses of free will, apart from usefulness. I have that it supports our education system - but I have no studies to back this up. Same with that it's difficult to "pinpoint" free will - no studies. Ugh, help?
    for a strength of this i put that it allows people to take responsibility for their own actions and supports the legal system. an example of this is yochelson and samenow cos they basically tried to prove that they were free thinking adults and were in charge of their choices to turn to criminality

    and a weakness is that the evidence is less scientific as behavious is harder to predict but i'm not sure of an example for that one...

    but something that makes this whole debate thing easier to remember is that individual differences and cognitive approach support this side so that's where i mostly get my evidence from for this debate...
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    [QUOTE=Caroline680;43174500]Oh also for Q2 (the making the experiment) remember to include HOW you split the participants into groups, because in most of the mark schemes if you do not include this you CANNOT get out of the 0-4 mark boundary[/QUOTE
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    can anyone list the all the studies you can use for each approach please? I only want to learn 2 for each approach. e.g cognitive approach would be loftus and palmer but what is another study I could use?

    if anyone has the time could you list each approach with some studies underneath please! it's amazing how much you forget in a week!
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    in independent measures you can split them into age groups, gender, pre tested personality aspects eg intelligence
    in repeated measures , obvs you use the same pps so you don't need to split them into groups
    and match pairs, split them into groups similar to independent measures on similar aspects such as age, gender ect

    not sure if thats what your asking but yeah, hope it helps a bit[/QUOTE]

    Oh yeah I know how to split people, I just wanted to remind everyone bc just missing out 1 bit of info means you can only get a max of 4/19
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    (Original post by AvaSofia)
    basically when you say why that study is deterministic/whatever the issue is, just make sure what you say is similar to what you have put in question a, as the whole point of question a is to state the assumption and definitions etc. so if what you say in question b is not like question a then you would be contradicting yourself, as it would be a waste of time saying the deterministic approach says this, this and this, but then not say them things in the second question.

    Your not being stupid, its just my awful explaining haha!
    Nope.. your probably explaining it correctly but its just me lol.. erm so basically in the b part of the question you would explain a study (aim/procedure/results) that say fits into the deterministic approach and then explain why that study is deterministic?

    IS that what you mean?
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    (Original post by AvaSofia)
    I have for determinism but not for free will, I did an essay a while back on determinism and free will, but the majority of it focused on the determinism side, probably because there is more to talk about, and that will probs be the case in the exam (I'm hoping!) as well as for reductionism and holism, with the focus more being on reductionism

    So I don't really have any strengths and weaknesses for free will, but do you want the strengths and weaknesses of determinism, or have you already got them?
    Yes, strengths & weaknesses of determinism will be great. (I could probably reverse them to make them strengths and weakness of free will :P) Thanks!
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    (Original post by emstewart)
    for a strength of this i put that it allows people to take responsibility for their own actions and supports the legal system. an example of this is yochelson and samenow cos they basically tried to prove that they were free thinking adults and were in charge of their choices to turn to criminality
    How could I miss that?! Of course, Yochelson!

    (Original post by emstewart)
    and a weakness is that the evidence is less scientific as behavious is harder to predict but i'm not sure of an example for that one...

    but something that makes this whole debate thing easier to remember is that individual differences and cognitive approach support this side so that's where i mostly get my evidence from for this debate...
    Hmm, I'll keep that in mind. Examples of free will are so hard. I guess less scientific as behaviours are harder to predict could perhaps be Pickel? Because they react against the judges' instructions on their own free will, and they do it contrary to what might have been predicted (that they'd listen more with the explanation). Thanks!
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    (Original post by lankan-gurl)
    Nope.. your probably explaining it correctly but its just me lol.. erm so basically in the b part of the question you would explain a study (aim/procedure/results) that say fits into the deterministic approach and then explain why that study is deterministic?

    IS that what you mean?
    Yeah that's it, like in G&S example, after describing the study, then say why it fits in with the approach, debate, issue etc. The point I'm making about part a is just make sure your explanation as to why its deterministic fits in with your definition of determinism in part a, as is they say completely different things then you have contradicted yourself, part a is the definition and part b is why the study fits in with that definition.
 
 
 
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