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    What does this mean? 'In these two elements it is suggested that electron repulsion's between the outer electrons are minimized, resulting in an increased stability of the chromium and copper atoms. In chromium atoms, the 4s and 3d orbitals are all half filled and in copper atoms the 3d orbitals are all filled'.

    I understand why there'd be an increased stabiity in the copper atoms as the outer shell is filled, but how would this decrease repulsion? I don't understand why the chromium atoms have a higher stability and again I don't get the repulsion thing.
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    This thread from a couple of years ago would be worth reading;
    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show....php?t=1144888
    Also, revise exchange energy and spin
 
 
 
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