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    If causation doesnt come up as an essay iv failed
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    (Original post by MonsterMorris)
    Hasan and Valderrama Vega are completely different legal points. The decision in Valderrama Vega is that there has to be threats of death or serious injury. Lesser threats do no provide a defence. However, provided that there are serious threats, then the cumulative effect of the threats as a whole can be considered.

    Do u know why bowen was not given duress though his family n himself were threatened seriously? I don't understand
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    (Original post by A sheesh)
    Do u know why bowen was not given duress though his family n himself were threatened seriously? I don't understand
    Hope this helps
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    (Original post by fats_12)
    Hope this helps
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    [Source: OCR Criminal Law, Sue Teal]
    And also it comes under the two-part test set in Graham (1982),
    - 'Was the defendant compelled to act as he did because he reasonably believed he had good cause to fear serious injury or death?' - Subjective
    - 'Would a sober person of reasonable firmness, sharing the characteristics of the accused, have responded in the same way?' - Objective

    In Bowen (1996) it was decided that the circumstances that could be considered are: age, pregnancy, serious physical disability, a recognised mental illness or psychiatric disorder and gender. A recognised mental illness or psychiatric disorder does not include low IQ (as stated by the above poster).
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    (Original post by Evolutionism)
    [Source: OCR Criminal Law, Sue Teal]
    And also it comes under the two-part test set in Graham (1982),
    - 'Was the defendant compelled to act as he did because he reasonably believed he had good cause to fear serious injury or death?' - Subjective
    - 'Would a sober person of reasonable firmness, sharing the characteristics of the accused, have responded in the same way?' - Objective

    In Bowen (1996) it was decided that the relevant circumstances are: age, pregnancy, serious physical disability, a recognised mental illness or psychiatric disorder and gender. A recognised mental illness or psychiatric disorder does not include low IQ (as stated by the above poster).
    Were those factors taken into account in Bowen? My teachers pretty certain Duress is going to pop up, hence I'm revising it well as we done an essay plan today


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    (Original post by fats_12)
    Were those factors taken into account in Bowen? My teachers pretty certain Duress is going to pop up, hence I'm revising it well as we done an essay plan today


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    Fuller extract from the textbook:
    "In Bowen it was accepted that the following could be relevant
    Age: very young people and the very old could be more susceptible to threats
    Pregnancy: there is the additional fear for the safety of the unborn child
    Serious physical disability: this could make it more difficult for the defendant to protect himself.
    Recognised mental illness or psychiatric disorder: this could include post-traumatic stress disorder or any other disorder which meant that a person might be more susceptible to threats. This did not include a low IQ.
    Gender: although the Court of Appeal thought many women might have as much moral courage as men."
    Unfortunately the textbook seems to only provide this much.

    EDIT: If it helps i also found a section on this case in another textbook, Ninth Edition, Criminal Law, Catherine Elliott and Frances Quinn.
    'In R v Bowen (1996) the defendant was accused of obtaining services by deception, having dishonestly obtained electrical goods on credit. in his defence he argued that throughout he had been acting under duress, as two men had threatened to attack him and his family with petrol bombs if he did not obtain the goods for them. The trial judge directed the jury members that, in applying the objective limb of the Graham test, they could take into account the age and sex of the defendant. On appeal it was argued that the jury should also have been directed to take into account his very low IQ. The appeal was rejected. The Court of Appeal stated that the mere fact that an accused is pliable, vulnerable, timid or susceptible to threats does not mean these are characteristics which can be invested in the reasonable person. On the other hand, if a defendant is within a category of persons whom the jury might think less able to resist pressure than people not within that category - such as being of a certain age or sex or suffering from a serious physical disability, recognised mental illness or psychiatric condition (including a post-traumatic stress disorder) - then this could be treated as a characteristic of the reasonable person. A low IQ, short of mental impairment or mental defectiveness, cannot be treated as such a characteristic'
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    (Original post by Converse Rocker)
    Do you include much else other than all the exceptions e.g voluntary assumption of care, creating a dangerous situation etc? Apart from statutory duties I'm struggling to think what else you'd put in.
    Yes, general rule, statute and exceptions applying to the question throughout and using case law. Its quite an easy essay most of the time. It's usually based around criticisms or problems with the law. Desperate for it to come up!
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    (Original post by Converse Rocker)
    Do you include much else other than all the exceptions e.g voluntary assumption of care, creating a dangerous situation etc? Apart from statutory duties I'm struggling to think what else you'd put in.
    You also talk about the duty of doctors, how they can stop feeding a patient if it was in his best interests, and this was decided in Airedale v Bland where V was in a persistent vegatitve state. Also in the OCR textbook it talks a little about involuntary manslaughter, just saying how gross negligence manslaughter is committed by an omission.
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    How ready are people for this exam? I'm feeling ok provided I get a bit of luck. Only need 68 for an A so that is an advantage.
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    (Original post by Ben1695)
    How ready are people for this exam? I'm feeling ok provided I get a bit of luck. Only need 68 for an A so that is an advantage.
    Snap. I also need 68 to secure my A. Im nowhere near ready but hopefully I can get 68 atleast. U ready?

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    (Original post by ArsenalWenger)
    Snap. I also need 68 to secure my A. Im nowhere near ready but hopefully I can get 68 atleast. U ready?

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    Ok, provided I get a little luck. Which topics do you know well enough to write out now?
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    I did feel ready but I think I've reached a point where I'm getting so anxious and stressed that I'm forgetting simple things... All day tomorrow I'm spending looking through markschemes and practising writing essays

    I'll do well if the paper includes a Q1 duress/attempts, a Q2 non fatal OAP/ theft/ invol manslaughter, and a Q3 insanity auto/ theft/ non fatal OAP.
    If not, I'll struggle to get around 75ums/more (what I think I'll need after my resit)
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    Not looking forward to this exam at all - I'm just hoping some nice topics come up, and I don't have a complete mind blank in the exam like last time :/
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    (Original post by feelinginfinite)
    I did feel ready but I think I've reached a point where I'm getting so anxious and stressed that I'm forgetting simple things... All day tomorrow I'm spending looking through markschemes and practising writing essays

    I'll do well if the paper includes a Q1 duress/attempts, a Q2 non fatal OAP/ theft/ invol manslaughter, and a Q3 insanity auto/ theft/ non fatal OAP.
    If not, I'll struggle to get around 75ums/more (what I think I'll need after my resit)
    I feel the same, attempts/duress/causation and consent would be the perfect essay. Q2 I need theft or assaults to come up and Q3 I would hope for duress, assaults, insanity/automatism, or theft, robbery or burglary, and causation
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    (Original post by Ben1695)
    Ok, provided I get a little luck. Which topics do you know well enough to write out now?
    Theft robbery burglary is my strong point. Involuntary man, gross negligence mans and omissions are quite decent too. Goin over attempts atm. Urself?

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    (Original post by ArsenalWenger)
    Theft robbery burglary is my strong point. Involuntary man, gross negligence mans and omissions are quite decent too. Goin over attempts atm. Urself?

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    I'm totally missing out murder and manslaughter :/ haha risky but I should still be able to answer the rest of the paper fingers crossed!


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    (Original post by Ben1695)
    How ready are people for this exam? I'm feeling ok provided I get a bit of luck. Only need 68 for an A so that is an advantage.

    (Original post by ArsenalWenger)
    Snap. I also need 68 to secure my A. Im nowhere near ready but hopefully I can get 68 atleast. U ready?

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    You 2 are so lucky you only need 68, I need 84 to get my A - fingers crossed
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    (Original post by ArsenalWenger)
    Theft robbery burglary is my strong point. Involuntary man, gross negligence mans and omissions are quite decent too. Goin over attempts atm. Urself?

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    Good on Attempts, Duress, Causation, Consent, Theft, Robbery and Burglary. Omissions is easy and not bad on non fatal OAPA. Its risky but I'm considering leaving out murder, and invol manslaughter
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    (Original post by Fward)
    You 2 are so lucky you only need 68, I need 84 to get my A - fingers crossed
    Still easily doable dw.

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    (Original post by Fward)
    You 2 are so lucky you only need 68, I need 84 to get my A - fingers crossed
    What topics are you hoping for?
 
 
 
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