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    What may be the substitution for HNO3 and H2SO4 in nitration reaction in general? What may be the substitution for HNO3 and H2SO4 in nitration reaction for methyl benzoate? Does the stirring time or rate or the temperature in the preparation or methyl-3-nitrobenzoate affect its yield and purity?
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    (Original post by vardhman_mehta96)
    What may be the substitution for HNO3 and H2SO4 in nitration reaction in general? What may be the substitution for HNO3 and H2SO4 in nitration reaction for methyl benzoate? Does the stirring time or rate or the temperature in the preparation or methyl-3-nitrobenzoate affect its yield and purity?
    The ester group in this case is a pi electron withdrawing group, so it is o/p deactivating. This makes the reaction fairly slow, so temperature and length of reaction will effect the yield. Stirring rate will have a negligible effect as long as there is some degree of stirring.
 
 
 
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