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OCR Biology F212 Revision [3rd June 2013] (Now Closed) Watch

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    (Original post by niceguy95)
    Can some explain species evenness

    As in the ey things we need to know
    Species evenness is to do with how fair the numbers in species are/ how similar all the numbers are. Because sure you can have a high biodiversity, but if there is only a few of some species and one is completely dominant over the other species, then it isn't very even hope that helps
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    (Original post by Ché.)
    "Describe the role of memory cells when the Influenza virus enters the body."
    (3).


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    Memory cells recognize foreign antingens.
    Differentiate to plasma cells.
    Plasma cells release antibodies specific to antigen.
    Higher concentration of antibodies and quicker production than primary response.
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    Define the term antibody (2)
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Smoking contains tar.
    Tar accumulates in the trachea.
    Paralyses the cilia.
    Cilia can no longer waft mucus out of the trachea.
    Goblet cells over produce mucus.
    Mucus accumulates in the trachea.
    This provides opportunistic infections to occur.
    As it provides optimum conditions for bacteria grow.
    This is known as chronic bronchitis.


    Over secretion of mucus also causes...
    triggers an immune response.
    This leads to a neutrophil
    secreting an enzyme known as elastase.
    This digests the elastic fibers surrounding the alevoli
    Alveolar can longer recoil back during expiration.
    Causes them to burst
    Reduced surface area.
    Shortness of breath.
    Great answer; a perfect example - even more than needed.



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    (Original post by Ché.)
    I have one for you guys...
    Get your long answer heads on!

    "One of the symptoms of smoking is the development of a smokers cough.
    Explain how smoking causes a smoker's cough AND how the cough itself can lead to further problems with the lungs over a long period of time. (7)."


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Tar in cigarette smoke paralyses cilia and causes goblet cells to produce more mucus.
    This means that the cilia cannot waft the excess mucus out of the airways.
    This results in a 'smoker's cough', as this is an attempt to move the excess mucus upwards and out of the airways.
    Persistent coughing can cause damage to the lining of the airways and alveoli. This is then replaced by scar tissue, which is less flexible. Additionally, the layer of smooth muscle in the wall of the bronchioles becomes thicker, narrowing the lumen of the airways. This restricts air flow.
    The alveoli being less flexible means they are less able to recoil during exhalation, which results in a shortness of breath.
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Define the term antibody (2)
    Antibody is a protein molecule that can identify and neutralise the antigen.
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    (Original post by Dejir)
    How much do I need for A if i got C in unit 1 abd 39/40 for practical

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    Well!?
    You would have scored: 58UMS - F323 Practical Skills.
    So...

    You definitely need a secure A grade for an A overall.
    Aim for around 70/100 or more, for more UMS.



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    (Original post by otrivine)
    Antibody is a protein molecule that can identify and neutralise the antigen.
    Personally!?
    It would not neutralise the antigen; it would neutralise toxins or the pathogenic material.
    I wouldn't necessarily state that "neutralisation" as that's one function, that's you've pointed out correctly.
    I think it requires you to reference the production from B-lymphocytes and then a reference to the detection of pathogens in general.



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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Define the term antibody (2)
    ANTIBODY:
    "A blood protein molecule which is produced by B-lymphocytes and detect the invading pathogenic material."


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    (Original post by Ché.)
    Personally!?
    It would neutralise the antigen; it would neutralise toxins or the pathogenic material.
    I wouldn't necessarily state that "neutralisation" as that's one function, that's you've pointed out correctly.
    I think it requires you to reference the production from B-lymphocytes and then a reference to the detection of pathogens in general.



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    Do you love bio? :O
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Define the term antigen (2)
    a protein/glycoprotein that stimulates an immune response.
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    (Original post by Ché.)
    ANTIBODY:
    "A blood protein molecule which is produced by B-lymphocytes and detect the invading pathogenic material."


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    That is true, but all your really need is: Are protein molecules that can identify and neautralise antigens
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    (Original post by Ché.)
    Personally!?
    It would not neutralise the antigen; it would neutralise toxins or the pathogenic material.
    I wouldn't necessarily state that "neutralisation" as that's one function, that's you've pointed out correctly.
    I think it requires you to reference the production from B-lymphocytes and then a reference to the detection of pathogens in general.



    Posted from TSR Mobile


    But thats the text book definition, so cannot argue with the text book
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    That is true, but all your really need is: Are protein molecules that can identify and neautralise antigens
    Answer this biogeek


    Describe 3 differences between specific and non-specific response
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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    Do you love bio? :O
    HAHA!
    You know what?
    As I wrote that, I was thinking: "I hope no one thinks I am being a git."
    But, I have written that before - exactly - and I have gotten one mark out of two.

    I don't want someone to lose an easy mark!


    I do love Biology, yes.
    But, that wasn't one of my worst petty references!
    LOL.


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    (Original post by otrivine)
    But thats the text book definition, so cannot argue with the text book
    You know what?
    No, I can't.
    Sorry then...
    I apologise.
    >_<


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    (Original post by BioGeek)
    That is true, but all your really need is: Are protein molecules that can identify and neautralise antigens
    I just realised that it was a definition from one of my other books!
    CGP and all!
    Apologies, agAin.
    LOL.


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    (Original post by otrivine)
    Answer this biogeek


    Describe 3 differences between specific and non-specific response
    I have an answer, but I shall not interrupt.
    LOL.


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    (Original post by Ché.)
    I have an answer, but I shall not interrupt.
    LOL.


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    No please answer This is good revision!
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    What details do we need to know about allopatric and sympatric speciation (reproductive isolation mechanisms), and stabilizing disruptive and directional selection?
 
 
 
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