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    (Original post by totopink)
    I dont know if people are aware of this site or if it's been posted before but this site has loads of free resources that concisely covers the entire syllabus (I think, it covers all the Hume stuff I'm doing)

    It's pretty much amazing? Glad I found it on the final hour.
    My teacher has always been pretty skeptical of these, claiming you can't really get above a C. But I don't really see how their anymore lacking that other textbooks, and they're certainly much better than that absolute **** AQA throw at us!
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    (Original post by Gillymander95)
    No problem!

    Argument from opposites (What you NEED to know):


    • Socrates seeks to find the the proper object of opinion. He questions "What could it possibly be for something to lie in between 'being' and non-being'?"
    • He argues that sensible objects (objects in the physical world perceived with our senses, otherwise known as 'particulars') lie in between 'being' and 'non-being', thus are the proper object of opinion.
    • Socrates then goes onto argue that as all particulars lie in between 'being' and 'non being', they must all have 'opposite epithets', which means that a pretty flower may participate in the Form of Beauty, but also in the Form of Ugliness.
    • This is because the pretty flower is is not beautiful in itself, so may have some aspects that deviate from beauty, which mean it is partly ugly also - the opposite of beauty.
    • "Particulars" have opposites as they are not intelligible and exist in the physical realm thus are subject to the subjective tastes, interests and opinions or the individual. This means, through use of opinion, and individual can declare a particular object to not be beautiful. They are relative and qualified bearers of predicates. They are mutable, in motion and transitory. For these reasons, they can never be an object of knowledge.
    • This stands in stark contrast with the Forms. For instance, the Form of Beauty has no opposite, as this is beauty in itself, not dependent on opinion because it is transcendent, static and eternal. Unlike the particulars, they are not changeable and ambiguous. They are of universal and timeless character. They are unqualified bearers of predicates. As the Form of Beauty is concerned with 'what is', then it follows it cannot have opposite epithets - it is of true, justified knowledge.


    So long story short, Millie, particulars have opposites because they lie between "what is and what is not", and the Forms don't have opposites, because they are only "what is". :cool:

    Possible criticisms (Sorry it has to be brief, I need to go to bed since my eyes are so bloodshot! I can help you with this more tomorrow if you don't quite understand it)

    1. Are we obliged to accept the Theory of Forms that underpin this argument? For instance, although we may accept that a pretty flower may never be truly beautiful, and may also be the opposite of beautiful (ugly), this doesn't mean that there is something that exists that is truly beautiful.
    2. What about particulars that have no opposites? Plato deploys terms to suit his theory. For instance, "beauty" has an opposite, which is "ugly". However, what about terms such as "red" and "fish"? These do not have distinct opposites. Plato's exclusion of such terms makes his argument appear much less plausible.
    Thank you so much! I would positive rep you but TSR says I've already given you too much!
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    (Original post by millie-rose)
    Thank you so much! I would positive rep you but TSR says I've already given you too much!
    Haha, why thank you
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    Anyone know what essay questions could come up for descartes please?
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    (Original post by ritaora)
    Anyone know what essay questions could come up for descartes please?
    Most likely for the 15-Mark is Material Things/Body, then Ontological Argument then Clear and Distinct Ideas.

    Then for the 45-Mark it's most likely going to be on Doubt + Certainty or Mind + Body
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    I don't know if it's because it's my last exam, but I am weirdly relaxed for tomorrow. . .
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    (Original post by millie-rose)
    I don't know if it's because it's my last exam, but I am weirdly relaxed for tomorrow. . .
    Yeah same but I definitely shouldn't be! What philosopher you studying?
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    (Original post by millie-rose)
    I don't know if it's because it's my last exam, but I am weirdly relaxed for tomorrow. . .
    i'm the same! i feel like that's not a lot of revision i can do apart from to know the key criticisms
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    Can anyone highlight the key criticisms in Mill's on liberty? I've revised as much as I can but the best things to know are the criticisms and replies to them criticisms right? In freaking out mode at the minute sorry..
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    (Original post by CrazyGal95)
    Can anyone highlight the key criticisms in Mill's on liberty? I've revised as much as I can but the best things to know are the criticisms and replies to them criticisms right? In freaking out mode at the minute sorry..
    Which topic do you need the criticisms for?
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    (Original post by millie-rose)
    I don't know if it's because it's my last exam, but I am weirdly relaxed for tomorrow. . .
    Yeah, same, I've been sat here playing "4 pics 1 word" most of the day, when this time last week I was going crazy over unit 3...
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    (Original post by millie-rose)
    I don't know if it's because it's my last exam, but I am weirdly relaxed for tomorrow. . .
    Ugh same it's killing me! I've finished my notes and now I just wanna do the exam. I'm doing Plato and feel like if I know the Forms I can pretty much do anything hahaha
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    (Original post by Lingo-Flamingo)
    Which topic do you need the criticisms for?
    hmm i'm not sure, i'm looking at chapter 3 at the moment where he focuses on individuality and how we should all not be moulded into the same thing, are there any critiques against his arguments in this chapter specifically?
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    Right, I'm not getting anywhere on "4 pics 1 word", thus back to revision I go.
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    (Original post by BWHilton)
    Yeah same but I definitely shouldn't be! What philosopher you studying?
    Plato you? and lol neither should I

    (Original post by Gillymander95)
    Yeah, same, I've been sat here playing "4 pics 1 word" most of the day, when this time last week I was going crazy over unit 3...
    ahahaha I've had to delete that over exam period... I know, the day before every exam I've been in crazy panic mode, yet today I'm just so chilled

    (Original post by glendale123)
    Ugh same it's killing me! I've finished my notes and now I just wanna do the exam. I'm doing Plato and feel like if I know the Forms I can pretty much do anything hahaha
    ahhh the Forms
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    (Original post by CrazyGal95)
    hmm i'm not sure, i'm looking at chapter 3 at the moment where he focuses on individuality and how we should all not be moulded into the same thing, are there any critiques against his arguments in this chapter specifically?
    for that kind of thing i have the following criticisms (obviously these aren't the only ones there are, but they're the ones i've focused on) -

    - Mill leaves out morality, sexuality and language when discussing what liberty can help develop in an individual, and these three things, especially language, actually develop most when help is given (you need to be taught a language from a young age, it's very hard to develop it on your own)

    - Mill overstates human rationality. We're driven by hatred and lust and jealousy a lot of the time, whereas he has faith that we are all rational and will act in the right way. We're susceptible to addiction, which shows that we're not actually all that rational, and our desires can sometimes control us. Therefore we need outside help, and possibly a limit on our liberty

    - Liberty is not the only condition for which individuals can develop, and it may not even be the most important condition - isn't virtue the most important?

    - A general conservative criticism that we need more help from the government and maybe he's wrong to dismiss all (bar Harm Principle) state intervention, as when left alone, people experience anomie (could use Durkheim's research)

    Hope this helped, it genuinely helped me to revise writing it out haha!

    edit: oh, and you can always use the clash with utility argument no matter what the question really!
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    (Original post by kkkassikassi)
    for that kind of thing i have the following criticisms (obviously these aren't the only ones there are, but they're the ones i've focused on) -

    - Mill leaves out morality, sexuality and language when discussing what liberty can help develop in an individual, and these three things, especially language, actually develop most when help is given (you need to be taught a language from a young age, it's very hard to develop it on your own)

    - Mill overstates human rationality. We're driven by hatred and lust and jealousy a lot of the time, whereas he has faith that we are all rational and will act in the right way. We're susceptible to addiction, which shows that we're not actually all that rational, and our desires can sometimes control us. Therefore we need outside help, and possibly a limit on our liberty

    - Liberty is not the only condition for which individuals can develop, and it may not even be the most important condition - isn't virtue the most important?

    - A general conservative criticism that we need more help from the government and maybe he's wrong to dismiss all (bar Harm Principle) state intervention, as when left alone, people experience anomie (could use Durkheim's research)

    Hope this helped, it genuinely helped me to revise writing it out haha!

    edit: oh, and you can always use the clash with utility argument no matter what the question really!
    Ah okay thanks for the reply! A lot of these are very helpful!
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    For Mill what questions or chapters are you hoping to come up specifically? Although looking at the AQA spec the question could relate to all 5 chapters!
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    (Original post by CrazyGal95)
    hmm i'm not sure, i'm looking at chapter 3 at the moment where he focuses on individuality and how we should all not be moulded into the same thing, are there any critiques against his arguments in this chapter specifically?

    (Original post by kkkassikassi)
    for that kind of thing i have the following criticisms (obviously these aren't the only ones there are, but they're the ones i've focused on) -

    - Mill leaves out morality, sexuality and language when discussing what liberty can help develop in an individual, and these three things, especially language, actually develop most when help is given (you need to be taught a language from a young age, it's very hard to develop it on your own)

    - Mill overstates human rationality. We're driven by hatred and lust and jealousy a lot of the time, whereas he has faith that we are all rational and will act in the right way. We're susceptible to addiction, which shows that we're not actually all that rational, and our desires can sometimes control us. Therefore we need outside help, and possibly a limit on our liberty

    - Liberty is not the only condition for which individuals can develop, and it may not even be the most important condition - isn't virtue the most important?

    - A general conservative criticism that we need more help from the government and maybe he's wrong to dismiss all (bar Harm Principle) state intervention, as when left alone, people experience anomie (could use Durkheim's research)

    Hope this helped, it genuinely helped me to revise writing it out haha!

    edit: oh, and you can always use the clash with utility argument no matter what the question really!
    This is great! Thank you! You could also possibly add that some people would argue that Mill is too individualistic in his outlook, and appears to favour individual freedom above all else, whereas a traditional conservative might argue that it is important that the 'dead dogma' and custom that Mill criticises actually play an important part in maintaining social cohesion. Equally, a socialist or modern liberal might argue that Mill focuses on negative freedom and personal liberty too much, and neglects the idea that an individual might also need positive freedoms, like access to a free education and healthcare, in order to fully reach their potential.
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    (Original post by BWHilton)
    Most likely for the 15-Mark is Material Things/Body, then Ontological Argument then Clear and Distinct Ideas.

    Then for the 45-Mark it's most likely going to be on Doubt + Certainty or Mind + Body

    How would you answer a 15 marker on Material things & C & D ideas? What could the questions be phrased as?
 
 
 
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